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100 Cards in this Set

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A relationship in which the host is not adversely affected
Commensalism
What are the agents of infectious disease?
Prions
Viruses
Bacteria
Rickettsiae
Chlamydiae
Fungi
Parasites
Creutzfeldt-Jakob and BSE are caused by?
Prions

They cause neuronal degeneration leading to ataxia, dementia, and death.
name some oncogenic viruses
herpesviruses
adenoviruses
papovaviruses
an extrachromosomal circular piece of DNA found in bacteria is called?
Plasmid
the polymer that makes up bacterial cell walls
Peptidoglycan: only produced by prokaryotes thus making it an attractive target for antibacterial therapy
Chain-like formation of bacteria
Streptococci
division of cocci in clusters
staphylococci
an organism capable of adapting its metabolism to aerobic or anaerobic conditions
facultatively anaerobic
Name the 3 genera of spirochetes
Leptospira
Borrelia
Treponema
what is Weil's syndrome
severe, potentially fatal illness caused by leptospira
Cause of Lyme disease
B.burgdorferi
Cause of syphilis
Treponema pallidum
T/F Mycoplasmas are resistant to cell wall-inhibiting antibiotics such as PCN and cephalosporins
TRUE because they lack cell walls
what are the effects of gram-negative bacteria on the host?
Fever
Shock
Hypotension
This organism causes Q fever
Coxiella burnetii
name examples of diseases caused by fungal dermatophytes
athlete's foot
ringworm
jock itch
name the only infecting organism that has DNA or RNA as its genomic material
Viruses
Name a fungus that is commensal flora of the skin, mucous membranes and GI tract and capable of growth at various temperatures
Candida albicans
Name 3 types of parasites
Protozoa
Helminths
Arthropods
Name 3 diseases caused by protozoa
Malaria
Amebic dysentery
Giardiasis
what are helminths?
wormlike parasites
Name some helminths
Nematodes (roundworms)
Cestodes (tapeworms)
Trematodes (flukes)
How does the transmission of helminths occur?
Ingestion of fertilized eggs
or
Penetration through the skin
Give examples of arthropods
Ticks
Mosquitos
Biting flies
Scabies
Lice
Fleas
Which antimicrobials interfere with cell wall synthesis
PCN
cephalosporins
monobactams
carbapenems
Name the 4 basic methods of antibiotic action
Interference with:

cell wall synthesis
protein synthesis
DNA synthesis
Normal metabolism
Which Abx interfere with protein synthesis
Macrolides(clindamycin)
Amino-glycosides(Tobramycin)
Rifampin
Ketolides

Chloramphenicol
Oxazolidinones
Streptogramins
Tetracyclines(Doxycycline)
Which Abx interfere with DNA synthesis
Fluoroquinolones(ciprofloxacin)
Nalidixic Acid
Which Abx interfere with normal metabolism by blocking folate synthesis?
Sulfonamides
Trimethoprim
aminoglycosides are known to cause what type of side effects?
hearing and kidney impairment
which Abx cause liver or bone marrow toxicity?
Chloramphenicol
Fluoroquinolones
How do bacteria resist Abx?
production of B-lactamase(enzyme that inactivates Abx)
Genetic mutations
Alternative metabolic pathways
Changes in cell wall(prevents access of Abx)
name 2 antimicrobials that can cause anemia as a side effect
Sulfonamides
Chloramphenicol
Name some protease inhibitors
Saquinavir
Abacavir
Nilfinavir
Epivir
How do antivirals work?
By inhibiting the viral DNA polymerase (RNA or DNA synthesis)
What is the MOA of antifungal agents?
They target the cytoplasmic membrane
Name some Antifungal angents
Amphotericin B
Nystatin
Fluconazole-(for Candidiasis)
Itraconazole
Voriconazole
what is the best drug to treat H.flu?
Cefuroxime(Ceftin)

2nd Gen Cephalosporin
Name some 3rd Gen. Cephalosporins
Ceftriaxone (Rocephin)
Ceftazidime -anti Pseudomona
Name some anaerobes
B.fragilis
Peptostreptococcus
Clostridia
Peptococcus
Fusobacterium
what is SCIDS?
Genetic mutations that lead to absence of all immune function and lack of NK cells
what is the MC opportunistic infection?
PCP

Sx:fever, dry cough, chest tightness, and difficulty breathing
How does SCIDS present?
Resembles AIDS, affected infants will have chronic diarrhea, failure to thrive, and have OIs. Death occurs by age 2
Infant with eczema, bleeding(low platelet count), and susceptibility to bacterial infections
Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome
Infant with congenital defects of the thymus, parathyroids, head, neck, and heart
DiGeorge Syndrome
MOA of Corticosteroids(prednisone)
Inhibit lymphocyte proliferation and cell-mediated responses
Inhibit synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes
MOA of Methotrexate (Antimetabolite)
inhibits the function of T-cells by blocking cell folic acid synthesis
MOA of Azathioprine and Mercaptopurine (anti-metabolites)
interferes with purine synthesis(adenine/guanine)
MOA of Cyclophasphamide (cytoxan-anti-cancer drug)
Alkylating agent that interferes with cell replication by cross linking DNA strands. The strands are then unable to uncoil and separate and the cells can no longer divide

Mustargen (Mopp)has similar MOA
MOA of Procarbazine (moPp)
Alkylating agent that interferes with cell replication by breaking DNA strands
what is the MOA of Antimetabolites?
used in cancer treatment, they interfere with DNA production, cell division and the growth of tumors.
2 drugs that are nephrotoxic and ototoxic
Aminoglycosides-Tobramycin
Glycopeptides-Vancomycin
Name 3 organisms that have a polysaccharide capsule
Pneumococcus
Klebsiella
H.flu
How do you treat CMV
Gancyclovir
an opportunistic infection that causes ring enhancing lesions
Toxoplasmosis
Name two corticosteroids
Dexamethasone
prednisone
A pt has a CD4 count of <200 with an OI, what is his Dx?
AIDS
What is the normal CD4 count?
500-1200
how do you treat diseases caused by spirochetes?
Tetracycline or macrolides
Chlamydia, Mycoplasmas, Legionella usually cause?
Atypical Pneumonias
name the CONDM drugs
Cloxacillin
Oxacillin
Nafcillin
Dicloxacillin
Methicillin
Name some macrolides
azithromycin
clarithromycin
clindamycin
erythromycin
Name 3 fluoroquinolones
ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
levofloxacin (Levaquin)
gatifloxacin (Tequin)
which of the following are NOT fungi?

Histoplasmosis
Aspergillus
Serratia
Legionella
Cryptococcus
B.Cereus
Serratia- gram -
Legionella- gram -
B.cereus- gram +
which of the following are NOT Gram + bacteria:

Corynebacter
Proteus
E.coli
Strep
Klebsiella
Malaria
Ehrlichia
Proteus- Gram -
E.coli- Gram -
Klebsiella- Gram -
Malaria- Protozoa
Ehrlichia- rickettsia
classify the following organisms as Gram +/- bacteria, fungi, protozoa, or spirochete:

Treponema
Listeria
Pseudomona
Trichomona
Borrelia
Aspergillus
Candida
Serratia
Shigella
Treponema- Spirochete
Listeria- Gram +
Pseudomona- Gram -
Trichomona- Protozoa
Borrelia- Spirochete
Aspergillus- Fungus
Candida- Fungus
Serratia- Gram -
Shigella- Gram -
Name the Amino-glycosides
Neomycin
Gentomycin
Tobromycin
Streptomycin
what are 3 classes of immunosuppressive drugs?
Corticosteroids
Cytotoxic Drugs
Antimetabolites
what drugs can be given to prevent and treat patients with neutropenia?
Prevention:
Bactrim
Quinolones

Treatment:
Abx against gram negatives and pseudomonas
what is the predominant cause of SIRS?(systemic inflammatory response syndrome)
Sepsis syndrome
what is the MCC of death in ICUs?
Septic Shock
How does sepsis syndrome present?
With hypotension and oliguria, cardio and pulmonary complications
What is the function of reverse transcriptase
It translates the viral RNA into DNA
What abx are used to treat Anarobes?
Metronidazole
Clindamycin
Treatment for MRSA infection?
Topical MRSA- CONDM drugs

More serious (endocarditis,pneumonia)-
Vancomycin
Drug to prevent TB
INH
drugs in Augmentin
Amoxicillin
Clavulanic acid
causes malaria
plasmodium
Name some enteric organisms
Proteus
Enterobactem
Shigella
Serratia
Salmonella
Clinical indications for Bactrim
PCP
Salmonella
Shigellosis
Nocardia
and others...
Uses of Chloramphenicol
Salmonella
Anaerobes
Ricketssia
First Gen.Cephalosporins
Keflex
Duricef
Ancef
Velocef
name a protozoan that causes
encephalitis
toxoplasma gondii
Pt comes in with a bullous impetigo what pathogen? What treatment?
Staph
Can give 1st Gen.Cephalosporin
Pt with this bullous impetigo has a coagulase resistant, what med do we give?
superficial MRSA infection, treat with CONDM drugs
How do you treat a trichomonas infection?
Metronidazole(flagyl)
T/F M.TB is part of MOTT
False
What is used to stain Cryptococcus neoformans in the lab?
India ink

This organism causes meningitis in people with HIV
What test is used to confirm or test for M.TB?
AFB smear
what is the Tx for PCP?
Bactrim
what is the MCC of DIC?
Vascular disorders
Which organism will not cause B symptoms?
Rhinnovirus
The lesions caused by TB are examples of what type of granulomatous lesions?
Chronic granulomatous lesions
What is a screening test for syphilis?
VDRL-RPR
Is oral candidiasis an opportunistic infection?
No, it can happen to anyone; it is common in babies
Test for herpes zoster
Tzanck smear
test for a transfusion reaction
Coomb's test
MC presentation of malignant limphoma
Cervical lymphadenopathy
Is borreliosis an example of a granulomatous lesion?
NO