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85 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The hematopoietic system encompasses
all of the blood cells and their precursors
the bone marrow
lymphoid tissues
referred to as the hematocrit.
The lower layer (approximately 42% to 47% of the whole-blood volume) contains the erythrocytes, or red blood cells
the buffy layer
The intermediate layer (approximately 1 %) containing the leukocytes
the plasma comprises approximately ? of the total volume.
What is the composition of plasma
90% to 91 % water
6.5% to 8% proteins (albumin,globulin,fibrinogen)
2% other small molecular substances
what do the alpha globulins
transport bilirubin and steroids
what do the beta globulins do
transport iron and copper
what are the gamma globulins
constitute the antibodies of the immune system
normal WBC count
normal platelet count
normal Hgb count
14-16K for men
12-14K for women
Less than this number of neutrophils puts you at high risk of infection
precursor to platelets
Coagulation cascade
what is lymphoma
uncontrolled lymph node proliferation
characteristics of Innate ( Nonspecific ) Immunity
Responses are Broad-Spectrum (non-specific)
There is no memory or lasting protective immunity
There is a limited repertoire of recognition molecules
primary (central)organs of the lymphoid system:
bone marrow
thymus gland
secondary (peripheral) organs of the lymphoid system
adenoids, tonsils, spleen lymph nodes, Peyer's patches
Function of Helper T cells (CD4+)
Regulatory cells that direct the immune response
secrete lymphokines that stimulate cytotoxic T cells and B cells to grow and divide, attract neutrophils, and enhance the ability of macrophages to engulf and destroy microbes
Function of suppressor T cells
inhibit the production of cytotoxic T cells once they are unneeded
Function of killer T cells (CD8+)
release lymphotoxins which cause cell lysis
The antibodies inactivate antigens by
complement fixation neutralization
the only antibody that can cross the placental barrier
the dominant antibody produced in primary immune responses
This antibody dominates in secondary immune responses
IgG (ie exposure to an organism after vaccination)
The principal cells of the immune system
effector cells
dendritic cells
MHC Class II molecules are found only these cells
macrophages, dendritic cells, activated T cells, B cells, APCs
where are MHC class I molecules are found
on almost every nucleated cell of the body. They present antigens to CD8 cytotoxic T cells
what is tumor necrosis factor
cytokine involved in systemic inflammation
Cells involved in specific (adaptive) immunity which is not present at birth; it is acquired
Lymphocytes,dendritic cells,but also antibodies, cytokines, and the complement system
the inflammatory responses of the body
dolor - pain
calor - heat
rubor - redness
tumor - swelling
Antihypertensive agents
ACE inhibitors
Alpha blockers
Angiotensin II receptor antagonists
Beta blockers
Calcium channel blockers
Function of IL 1
activates endothelium and lymphocytes
induces fever and acute phase response
stims neutrophil production
Function of IL2
Growth factor for activated T cells
induces synthesis of other cytokines
activates cytotoxic T and NK cells
Function of TNF
induces inflammation, fever, and acute phase response
activates neutrophils and endothelial cells
kills cells through apoptosis
inflammatory mediators derived from arachidonic acid.
Prostaglandins and leukotrienes
What do prostaglandins do?
promote platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction
what do leukotrienes do?
cause the symptoms of hayfever and asthma, act by mediating immediate hypersensitivity
Non-painful nodes are assoc. with (inflammatory process? or neoplasms?)
neoplasms; painful nodes with inflammatory processes
What is the main purpose of inflammation
to bring fluid, proteins, and cells from the blood into the damaged tissues
The inflammatory mediators
Plasma proteases(kinins, complement proteins, and clotting factors)
Prostaglandins, leukotrienes
Platelet activating factors
Function of bradykinin
causes increased capillary permeability and pain
This type of immunity occurs when the person is exposed to a live pathogen, develops the disease, and becomes immune as a result of the primary immune response
Naturally acquired active immunity
this type of immunity can be induced by a vaccine, a substance that contains the antigen
Artificially acquired active immunity
This type of immunity is achieved by injection of antibodies, such as gamma globulin, that are not produced by the recipient's cells. Usually short-term immunization.
Artificially acquired passive immunity
this type of immunity occurs during pregnancy, in which certain antibodies are passed from the maternal into the fetal bloodstream
Naturally acquired passive immunity
Lymphocyte Sub-Classes
B-Lymphocytes-Differentiate into plasma cells;
Plasma cells release specific antibodies

T-Lymphocytes-Response to viral infection, cancer, foreign cells

Natural Killer Cells-Attack cancer cells and cells infected with virus
Myeloid lines
Erythroblasts (develop into erythrocytes)
Myeloblasts (develop into Granulocytes)
Megakaryocyte (develop into platelets
Normal blood cell levels
Hct - 41 to 50%
Hgb - 13.6 to 17.7 g/dl
RBC - 4.4 to 5.9 in 10^6/ul
WBC - 4.5 to 11.0k
the leading cause of blindness in the United States today for those over the age of fifty years
Macular degeneration
Symptoms of Ménière's disease
hearing loss, usually in one ear
what causes meniere's disease
an increase in volume and pressure of the endolymph of the inner ear
antibodies are not produced by the the person's own cells, it is achieved either by injection of antibodies or by mother to baby transfer.
passive immunity
antibodies are produced by the the person's own cells, either by exposure to a live pathogen or a vaccine
Active immunity
results in cytolysis by disrupting the target cell's plasma membrane; consists of more than 35 soluble and cell-bound proteins
Complement system
supplies oxygenated blood to the liver, stomach, abdominal oesophagus, spleen and the superior half of both the duodenum and the pancreas
The celiac artery
The branches of the celiac trunk
left gastric artery
common hepatic artery
splenic artery.
Right sided H.F can cause these conditions
JVD, pulmonary edema, hepatomegaly, ascites
Left sided H.F can cause these conditions
Angina, SOB, diaphoresis, cold clammy skin, fatigue, syncopy, confusion, DOE, tachycardia
most common cause of right sided H.F
Left sided H.F
Scarlet Fever and streptococcal infections can lead to this
Rheumatic heart disease which can lead to carditis and AV blocks
most common cause of myocarditis and pericarditis
viral infections
what is cardiomyopathy
a generalized enlargement of the endocardium
Primary HTN risk factors
metabolic syndrome
Cerebral circulation
two internal carotid arteries
two vertebral arteries
This artery supplies the large intestine from the left colic (or splenic) flexure to the upper part of the rectum
Inferior messenteric
this artery supplies the intestine from the duodenum and pancreas to the left colic flexure
Superior messenteric
what is ejection fraction
a measurement of the heart's efficiency and can be used to estimate the function of the left ventricle, which pumps blood to the rest of the body
Abdominal aorta
begins at aortic hiatus (T12)
ends at L4 where it divides into the iliac arteries
Function of T cells
kill virus and cancer infected cells.
responsible for the rejection of tissue and organ grafts
Function of lymphokines
lymphokines call into play many other cells and substances, including the elements of the inflammatory response. They encourage cell growth, promote cell activation, direct cellular traffic, destroy target cells, and incite macrophages
which layer of blood contains WBCs and platelets
Buffy coat
this type of WBC > in number during parasitic infections
normal platelet count
150 -400k
bones in which bone marrow is mostly found
pelvis, ribs, and sternum
normal RBC count for women
3.6 - 5.0 million
normal RBC count for men
4.2-5.4 million
normal WBC count
4.4-11.3 K
hormone-like factors that stimulate hematopoeisis
Normal ESR
0-10 mm/hr
what are prostacyclins
a vasodilator that inhibits platelet aggregation
a vasoconstrictor released by platelets
thromboxane A2
malignant tumor of epithelial tissue
malignant tumor of messenchymal tissue