Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 2 main types of radiation?
1. Ionizing
2. Nonionizing
What type of radiation is UV radiation?
What are the 3 flavors of UV radiation?
What UV rays are associated with cancer?
UVA and UVB - mostly UVB
What type of UV Rays are in tanning beds?
What are you betting when you go to a tanning booth?
That the filters are not so decripit that they fail to filter out the UVB rays.
Why doesn't UVC light cause cancer so much?
Because the ozone layer filters it out.
What is solar elastosis?
The increase in leathery quality to the skin as everyone ages.
How do you evaluate how much solar elastosis you have?
By looking at the skin on your arms and comparing it to that on your rear end.
What types of carcinomas does UVB light cause?
Squamous cell carcinoma
Basal cell carcinoma
How is solar elastosis caused?
By UV light hitting collagen and protein and fibrous tissues in the skin and damaging them.
How is melanoma cuased?
By UV light hitting DNA and causing proliferation of monoclonal cells that have mutated genes.
How does UV light damage DNA exactly?
By causing pyrimidine/thymine dimerizations.
What is the normal mechanism for taking care of pyrimidine/thymine dimers?
NER - nucleotide excision repair
What disease is associated with mutated NER genes?
Xeroderma pigmentosum
What are patients with Xeroderma pigmentosum susceptible to?
Skin cancer
What is the other repair pathway for UV light damage to DNA?
the UV response pathway
What happens if you take DNA in a test tube and run it on a gel?
Nothing much; you get a nice thick band at the top of the gel.
What happens if you take DNA in a test tube and shine it under a UV light, and THEN run it on a gel?
you'll get a smeeeeaaaarrr of DNA across the gel because of all the fragments you created.
What are some examples of ionizing radiation?
-Gamma rays
-Particulate rays
How much radiation is in a chest xray? Cancer treatment?
Chest Xray: 0.14 rems

Cancer Txm: 4000-7000 rems
What is a subclinical dose of ionizing radiation?
<200 rems
What symptoms will be seen in subclinical acute radiation syndrome?
But complete survival rate.
What symptoms develop in doses of radiation of 200-600rem?
Hematopoietic problems, possible death
What symptoms develop in radiation doses of 600-1000 rems?
Thrombocytopenia and death in 14 days
What symptoms develop in radiation doses of 1000 rems or more?
Coma and death within 36 hours.
Why is the bone marrow more susceptible to radiation damage than say the GI tract or CNS?
Because it turns over much more often.
So how is it that cancer patients can tolerate such huge amounts of radiation?
It is not given all at once but over long periods of time in small doses.
What are some delayed complications of radiation?
-Cancer (yeah that's ironic)
What is the major factor that ends up limiting how much radiation you can give a person?
Ischemia atrophy and fibrosis - the local damage around the cancer.
What are 4 classic inherited diseases with DNA repair defects?
1. Xeroderma pigmentosum
2. Fanconi's anemia
3. Ataxia telangiectasia
4. Bloom's syndrome
What is one of the hottest areas of research?
Tumor immunity
What are 4 antitumor effector mechanisms?
1. CTLs
2. NK cells
3. Macrophages
4. Antibodies
What is the best?
How do tumors evade the immune system?
By darwinian evolution