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202 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
high alpha-FP
NT defects:
-spina bifida occulta
-meninocele
-myelomeningocele
low folic acid during preg can cause
NT defects:
-spina bifida occulta
-meninocele
-myelomeningocele
spina bifida occulta
-failure of closure of s.c.
-no herniation of meninges or s.c.
meningocele
-meninges herniate thru s.c. defect
myelomeningocele
-s.c. and meninges herniate thru s.c. defect
MCC congenital malformations in US
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (highest risk at 3-8 wks gestation)
when is highest risk for Fetal Alchol syndrome?
3-8 wks gestation
Fetal Alchol Syndrome:
-Sx?
-microcephaly
-MR
-facial abnl
-limb abnl
-heart and lung fistulas
neoplastic progression
1. Normal

2. Hyperplasia

3. Dysplasia
-abnl proliferation of cells with loss of size, shape, & orientation
-REVERSIBLE

4. In situ CA (pre-invasive)
-non-invasive=has NOT invaded BASEMENT MEMBRANE
-high nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio and clumped chromatin
-neoplastic cells encompass entire thickness

5. Invasive CA
-invasive=invaded BASEMENT MEMBRANE

6. Metastasis
-if reaches bv and spreads to other organs via blood=metastasis
dysplasia
abnl prolif of cells w/loss of shape, size, orientation
-REVERSIBLE
carcinoma-in-situ
-pre-invasive=has not yet invaded BASEMENT MEMBRANE
-neoplastic cells encompass entire thickness
-high nuc:cyto ratio & clumped chromatin
invasive carcinoma
-invasive=has invaded BASEMENT MEMBRANE
metaplasia
-replacement of one mature cell type by another mature cell type
-reversible
-d/t irritation (i.e. squamous metaplasia in trachea and bronchi of smokers)
anaplasia
-abnl cells lacking differentiation
-often used to describe undifferentiated malignant neoplasms
carincoma implies what origin?
epithelial origin
sarcoma implies what origin?
mesenchymal origin
adenoma-what origin
epithelial
(malignant version=adenoCA)
papilloma
-what cell type origin?
epithelial
(malignant form=papilloCA;
CA==>epithelial)
hemangioma
-define
-what cell type origin?
-blood vessel

mesenchymal origin
(malignant form=angiosarcoma;
sarcoma==>mesenchymal)
leiomyoma
-define
-what cell type origin?
-SmM

mesenchymal origin
(malignant form=leiomyosarcoma;
sarcoma==>mesenchymal)
rhabdomyoma
-define
-what cell type origin?
-SkM

mesenchymal origin
(malignant form=rhabdomyosarcoma;
sarcoma==>mesenchymal)
osteoma
-define
-what cell type origin?
-bone

mesenchymal origin(
malignant form=osteosarcoma;
sarcoma==>mesenchymal)
lipoma
-define
-what cell of origin
fat

(mesenchymal origin
malignant form=liposarcoma;
sarcoma==>mesenchymal)
mature teratoma
-define
-what cell of origin
>1 cell type, BENIGN

(malignant=immature teratoma)

(mesenchymal origin)
immature teratoma
-define
-what cell of origin
>1 cell type, MALIGNANT

(benign=mature teratoma)

mesenchymal origin
what neoplasm is association w

Downs
ALL ("we ALL fall DOWN")
what neoplasm is association w

xeroderma pigmentosum
all skin cancers:

SCC
Basal Cell CA
melanoma
what neoplasm is association w

chornic atrophic gastritis
gastric adenoCA
what neoplasm is association w

pernicious anemia
gastric adenoCA
what neoplasm is association w

postsurgical gastric remnants
gastric adenoCA
what neoplasm is association w

tuberous sclerosis
[tuberous sclerosis=
*facial angiofibroma, *seizures,
*MR)

-astrocytoma
-acrdiac rhabdomyoma
what neoplasm is association w

actinic keratosis
SCC of skin
what neoplasm is association w

Barret's esoph
esophageal adenoCA
what neoplasm is association w

Plummer-vinson syndrome
[Plummer Vinson syndrome=iron deficiency ==>

*anemia
*atrophic glossitis
*esoph webs]

SCC of esophagus
what neoplasm is association w

cirrhosis
hepatocellular CA
what neoplasm is association w

Ulcerative Colitis
colonic adenoCA
what neoplasm is association w

Paget's dz of bone
secondary osteosarcoma & fibrosarcoma
what neoplasm is association w

Immunodeficiency states
malignant lymphomas
what neoplasm is association w

AIDS
-Kaposi's sarcoma
-aggressive maglinant lymphomas (non-Hodgkins)
what neoplasm is association w

Autoimm dz's like Hasimoto's thyroditis and Myasthesnia Gravis
benign and malignant thymomas
what neoplasm is association w

Hashimoto's thyroiditis
benign & malignant thymomas
what neoplasm is association w

Myasthenia Gravis
benign & malignant thymomas
what neoplasm is association w

acanthosis nigricans
[Acanthosis Nigricans=hyperpigmentation (darkening) of skin & epidermal thickening)

Visceral malignancy:
-breast
-lung
-stomach
-uterus
what neoplasm is association w

dysplastic nevus
malignant melanoma
what condition is assoc w/

ALL
Down's (mneum: we ALL get DOWN together")
what condition is assoc w/

basal cell CA of skin
xeroderma pigmentosum,
albinism

(These predispose to all skin CA's:

all skin cancers:

SCC
Basal Cell CA
melanoma)
what condition is assoc w/

gastric adenoCA
-chronic atrophic gastritis
-pernicious anemia
-postsurgical gastric remnants
what condition is assoc w/

astrocytoma
tuberous sclerosus

[tuberous sclerosus:
*facial angiofibroma
*seizures
*MR]
what condition is assoc w/

cardiac rhabdomyosarcoma
tuberous sclerosis:
*MR
*seizure
*facial angiofibroma
what condition is assoc w/

SCC of skin
actinic keratosis
*xeroderma pigmentosum
*albinism

*These predispose to all skin CA's:

SCC
Basal Cell CA
melanoma)
what condition is assoc w/

esophageal adenoCA
Barrett's esoph
what condition is assoc w/

SCC of esophagus
Plummer Vinson syndrome

[Plummer Vinson syndrome:
iron def==>
*anemia
*esoph web
*atrophic glossitis]
what condition is assoc w/

hepatocellular CA
cirrhosis
what condition is assoc w/

colonic adenoCA
Ulcerative colitis
what condition is assoc w/

secondary osteosarcoma
Paget's dz of bone
what condition is assoc w/

fibrosarcoma
Paget's dz of bone
what condition is assoc w/

malignant lymphomas
immuno-def states
what condition is assoc w/

Kaposi's sarcoma
AIDS
what condition is assoc w/

non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (aggressive malignant lymphoma)
AIDS
oncogene for Burkitt's lymphoma
c-myc

("Myc Burkitt")
oncogene for Follicular lymphoma
bcl

(imagine follicle riding a bicycle)
oncogene for breast cancer
erb B2
oncogene for ovrian cancer
erb B2
oncogene for gastric cancer
erb B2
oncogene for colon cancer
RAS

"don't harRASs me b/c i have colon cancer and say i got this from anal sex, you homophobe"
oncogene for lung tumor
L-myc
oncogene for neuroblastoma
N-myc
oncogene for MEN II and II
Ret
tumor assoc w/ c-myc
Burkitt lymphoma

("C-Myc Burkitt")
tumor assoc w/ bcl-2
follicular lymphoma
undiff lymphoma

(imagine follicle riding a BiCycLe=BCL2)
tumor assoc w/ erb-B2
breat CA
ovarian CA,
gastric CA
tumor assoc w/ ras
colon cancer

"don't harRASs me b/c i have colon cancer and say i got this from anal sex, you homophobe"
tumor assoc w/L-myc
lung tumor
tumor assoc w/N-myc
neuroblastoma
tumor assoc w/ret
MEN II and III
assoc tumor suppressor gene and chromosome for

retinoblastoma
Rb,
13q
assoc tumor suppressor gene and chromosome for

osteosarcoma
Rb,
13q
assoc tumor suppressor gene and chromosome for

breast cancer
BRCA 1 & 2
17q, 13q
assoc tumor suppressor gene and chromosome for

ovarian cancer
BRCA 1 & 2
17q, 13q
assoc tumor suppressor gene and chromosome for

most human cancers
p53,
17p
assoc tumor suppressor gene and chromosome for

colorectal cancer
APC ("A"ss "P"resenting "C"ancer);

5q
assoc tumor suppressor gene and chromosome for

Wilms' Tumor
WT1,
11q
assoc tumor suppressor gene and chromosome for

Neurofibromatosis Type 1
NF1,
17q
assoc tumor suppressor gene and chromosome for

Neurofibromatosis Type 2
NF2,
22q
CEA suggests what tumor
[CEA=CarcinoEmbryonic Antigen)

-suggests colorectal & pancreatic cancers:

-very non-specific but produced by ~70% colorectal and pancreatic cancers, also produced by gastric and breast CA
a-FP suggests what tumor
-hepatocellular CA
-yolk sac tumor (ovary, testis: nonseminomatous germ cell tumor)
B-hCG suggests what tumor
mneum: "hCG":

"h"=hydatidiform moles
"C"=Choriocarcinoma
"G"=Gestational trophoblastic tumors
CA-125 suggests what tumors
ovarian tumor,
malignant epithelial tumor
S-100 suggests what tumors
melanoma,
neural tumors (Goljan),
astrocytoma (brain)
alkaline phosphatase suggests what tumor
metastasis to bone,
Paget's dz of bone,
obstructive biliary dz
bombesin suggests what tumor
neuroBLASToma (a "BOMB" creates a "BLAST"),
lung cancer,
gastric cancer
TRAP suggests what tumor
[TRAP=Tartrate-Resistant Acid phosphatase]

Hairy cell leukemia (a B cell neoplasm)
what can the virus HTLV-1 predispose to?
Adult T-cell leukemia
what can the virus HBV predispose to?
hepatocellular CA
what can the virus HCV predispose to?
hepatocellular CA
what can the virus EBV predispose to?
-Burkitt's lymphoma (mneum: Kids get mono, just as kids get Burkitt's)

-nasopharyngeal CA
what can the virus HPV predispose to?
-cervical CA (HPV 16, 18)
-anal/penile CA
2006 shelf: what can the virus HHV-8 predispose to?
Kaposi's
2006 shelf: what can trigger Kaposi's?
HHV-8
what can Burkitt's lymphoma be triggered by?
EBV
what can nasopharyngela CA be triggered by?
EBV
what can trigger Adult T-cell lymphoma?
the virus HTLV-1
2006 shelf: in what organ can vinyl chloride cause cancer?
liver
2006 shelf: what toxin can cause cancer i the liver?
vinyl chloride
nitrosamines can cause cancer in what organ(s)?
esophagus,
stomach
asbestos can cause cancer in what organ
lung (mesotheliomas & bronchogenic CA)
arsenic can cause cancer in what organ?
skin (SCC)
CCl4 can cause cancer in what organ?
liver (centrilobular necrosis, fatty change)
naphthalene (aniline) dyes can cause cancer what cancer?
transitional cell CA (bladder)
2006 shelf: SCC of skin
-precursor=actinic keratosis
-d/t xs exposure to sunlight and arsenic
-on hands and face (b/c sun-exposed)
-locally invasive, but rarely metastasizes
-keratin pearls
basal cell CA of skin
-sun-exposed areas
-Pearly PApules, PAlisading nuclei
-locally invasive, but rarely metastasizes
melanoma of skin
-dysplastic nevus=precursor
-often metastasizes (vs. SCC and basal cell CA of skin)
-risk of metastasis correlates with depth of tumor
-fair skinned ppl at highest risk
MC benign bone tumor
-desc
Osteochrondroma

in men<25 y/o
*metaphysis of long bones
-mature bone w/cartilagenous cap
-transformation to malignant chondrosarcoma is rare
giant cell tumor
=primary bone tumor

-site=epiphyseal end of long bones: distal femur, proximal tibia

*"double bubble" or "soap bubble" appearance on X ray
"double bubble" on X-ray
giant cell tumor (benign bone tumor)
in what part of bone is MC benign bone tumor found?
metaphysis of long bone

=site of MC benign bone tumor [osteochondroma] AND MC malignant bone tumor [osteosarcoma]
in what part of bone is MC malignant bone tumor found?
metaphysis of long bones

=site of MC benign bone tumor [osteochondroma] AND MC malignant bone tumor [osteosarcoma]
Codman's triangle
osteosarcoma

(Codman's triangle=elevation of periosteum on X-ray)
ewing's sarcoma
malignant bone tumor

"onion-skin appearance" (going out for "eWINGS & onion rings")

-t(11,22)
t(11,22)
ewing's sarcoma (malignant bone tumor)
MC primary brain tmor
glioblastoma multiforme
(Grade IV astrocytoma)
pseudopalisading tumor cells on brain tumor
glioblastoma multiforme
(Grade IV astrocytoma)
brain tumor w/psamomma bodies ?
meningioma
brain tumor affecting CN 8?
schwannoma
-often localized to CN 8==>acoustic schwannoma
-assoc w/Neurofibromatosis Type 2
2006 shelf: pituitary adenoma
-originates from?
-desc
-tumor of Rathke's pouch
-MC form=PRL secreting
-can cause bitemporal hemianopsia (d/t pressure on optic chiasm)
-can cause hypo or hyperpituitarism
2006 shelf: what can cause bitemporal hemianopsia
pituitary adenoma (tumor of Rathke pouch origin)
PNET
medulloblastoma
-highly malignant brain tumor in kids
-compress 4th ventricle
==>hydrocephalus
-rosette or pseudorosette pattern
medulloblastoma
-highly malignant brain tumor in kids
-can compress 4th ventricle
==>hydrocephallus
*PNET
*rosette/pseudorosette pattern
"butterfly glioma"
glioblastoma multiform
(Grade IV astrocytoma)
metastasis to brain
50% of brain tumors are metastasis

"Lots of Bad Stuff Kills Glia"
L=Lung
B=Breast
S=Skin (melanoma)
K=Kidney (RCC)
G=GI
MC sites of metastasis
1st regional LN
then Liver & Lung
Metastasis to liver
C=Colon
S=Stomach
Metastasis>>>primary liver tumor

Pancreas
B=Breast
L=Lung

"Cancer Sometimes Penetrates Benign Liver"
Metastasis to bone
Metastasis>>>primary bone tumor

K=Kidney
L=Lung
T=Testes
T=Thyroid
P=Prostate
B=Breast

(Prostate and breast=MC)

"Kids Love To Throw Peanut Butter" which annoys me down to my BONES

"L"ung="L"ytic
"B"reast="B"oth Lytic and Blastic
Prostate=blastic
what tumor can cause Cushing's
Sm cell lung CA
==>can produce ACTH or ACTH-like peptide
==>Cushing's
what tumor can cause SIADH
Sm cell lung CA or intracranial neoplasm
==>produce ADH or ANP
==>SIADH
what tumor can cause hypercalcemia
Sm cell lung CA or
RCC or
Breast CA or
MM (MM=Multiple Myeloma=plasma cell tumor)
metastasis to bone
==>incr PTH-like hormone,
TGF-alpha,
TNF-alpha,
IL-2
==>hypercalcemia
what tumor can cause polycythemia
RCC
==>produce EPO
==>polycythemia
what tumor can cause Lambert-Eaton syndrome
[Lambert-Eaton syndrome=muscle weakness]

thymoma or bronchogenic CA
==>Ig against pre-synaptic Ca++ channels at NMJ
==>Lambert-Eaton syndrome (muscle weakness)
what tumor can cause gout
multiple neoplasms
==>increased nucleic acid turnover (i.e. cytotoxic therapy)
==>incr uric acid (hyperuricemia)
cancer incidence and mortality in males and females
Males:

Incidence-
1. Prostate
2. Lung
3. Colon/rectum

Mortality-
1. Lung
2. Prostate


Females:

Incidence-
1. Breast
2. Lung
3. Colon/rectum

Mortality:
1. Lung
2. Breast

Overall:

Incidence-
1. Lung
2. Colon/rectal

Mortality:
1. Lung
2. colon/rectum
target cells
thalassemias
hypersegmented PMN's
B12 and folate def
decr serum haptoglobin & incr serum LDH
RBC hemolysis
causes of microcytic anemia
1. iron def
2. anemia of chronic dz:
low serum Fe, incr Ferritin==>decr TIBC

3. thalaseemias

4. sideroblastic anemia=failure to completely form here, whose biosynthesis takes place partly in the mitochondria
==>iron deposits build up in mito
==>ring around nucleus of developing RBC

#1 cause of sideroblastic anemia=alcoholism (alcohol messes up mitochondria)

#2: B6 def

#3: lead poisoning
causes of macrocytic anemia
-B12 or folate def
-drugs that lock DNA synthesis (i.e. sulfa drugs, AZT)
causes of normocytic, normochromic anemia
-hemorrhage
-membrane defects (hereditary spherocytosis)
-enzyme deficiencies (G6PD def)
-BM d/o (aplastic anemia, leukemia)
-hemoglobinopathies (sickle cell dz)
-anemia of chronic disease
aplastic anemia
-pancytopenia w/anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia
-d/t destruction/failure of multipotent myeloid stem cells
sickle cell anemia
-nl Glutamic acid==>Val in Beta chain of Hg

Complications
-Salmonella infxns
-spleen sequestration crisis

Tx:
-splenectomy (so it doesn't destroy RBC's)
-hydroxyurea (incr HbF)
-BM transplantation
alpha thalassemia
-Asian and African pop
("Alpha"="A"sian, "A"frican)
-no compensatory incr in other types of Hg

(alpha chain has 4 genes):
-3 gene deletion=HbH
-4 gene deletion=Hg Barts=death in utero
Beta thalassemia
-Mediterranean populations
-compensatory incr in HgF
-

(Beta chain has 4 alleles)
-B thal minor (heterozygote):
B chain underproduced
-B thal major (homozygote)
B chain missing;
requires constant blood transfusions
==>secondary hemochromatosis==>cardiac failure
==>BM expansion==>SkM deformities
warm agglutinin
-IgG
-chronic anemia seen in SLE, CLL, or certain drugs (alpha-methyldopa)
cold agglutinin
-IgM
-anemia triggered by cold
-Goljan: when go outside in the cold, IgM's aggregate and cut off blood supply to fingers/nose==>ischemia==>fingers/nose turn blue
-seen during recovery from:
Mycoplasma pneumonia
Mononucleosis:
Ig"M" ~ "M"ycoplasma pneumonia ~ "M"ononucleosis
erythroblastosis fetalis
in Rh+ babies of Rh- moms
hereditary spherocytosis caused by
defect in spectrin or ankyrin
==>less membrane
==>RBC's have no central pallor

Goljan: "anorexic RBC's" (vs. target cells="obese RBC's"
paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
RBC surface lacks enzyme to protect it from complement
==>destroyed by complement
MCC DIC?
obstetric complications
schistocytes indicate
DIC
helmet-shaped cells indicate
DIC
DIC
-causes
-lab
-types of cells
DIC=activation of clotting cascade
==>consumption of platelets, fibrin, and coag factors

causes:
"STOP Making New Thrombi"

Sepsis
Trauma
Obstetric complications (MC)
Pregnancy
Malignancy
Nephrotic Syndrome
Transfusions

Labs:
incr PT and PTT
incr fibrin split products (D-dimers)
decr platelets

*helmet shaped cells
*schistocytes
incr D-dimers
DIC

(D dimers=fibrin split products)
coagulation factor defects
-Sx
-types
Sx=Macrohemorrhages:
-hemarthroses (bleeding into joints)
-easy bruising
-incr PTT

Types:
*Hemophilia A (Factor 8 def)
*Hemophilia B (Facotr 9 def)
*von Willebrand's disease:=MC bleeding D/o;
deficient vWF
==>defective platelet adhesion
==>decr factor 8 survival)
platelet abnormalities
-Sx
-types
Sx: Microhemorrhages:
-easy bleeding from mucous membranes
-epistaxis
-petechiae/purpura
-incr BT
-nl PT, PTT

1. ITP (Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura):
*antiplatelet Ab
*incr megakaryocytes (to make more platelets)

2. TTP
-schistocytes
-incr LDH (Lactate Dehydrogenase; contained inside RBC's [b/c RBC's always convert glucose==>lactic acid];
thus incr LDH==>incr RBC lysis

3. DIC

4. aplasic anemia

5. certain drugs (aspirin/NSAIDS, immunosuppressive agents)
hemarthrosis indicates what
coagulation factor defects:

-Hemophilia A
-Hemophilia B
-vWF dz
epistaxis indicates what
platelet abnl:

1. ITP (Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura):
*antiplatelet Ab
*incr megakaryocytes (to make more platelets)

2. TTP
-schistocytes
-incr LDH (Lactate Dehydrogenase; contained inside RBC's [b/c RBC's always convert glucose==>lactic acid];
thus incr LDH==>incr RBC lysis

3. DIC

4. aplasic anemia

5. certain drugs (aspirin/NSAIDS, immunosuppressive agents)
petechiae/purpursa indicate what
1. ITP (Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura):
*antiplatelet Ab
*incr megakaryocytes (to make more platelets)

2. TTP
-schistocytes
-incr LDH (Lactate Dehydrogenase; contained inside RBC's [b/c RBC's always convert glucose==>lactic acid];
thus incr LDH==>incr RBC lysis

3. DIC

4. aplasic anemia

5. certain drugs (aspirin/NSAIDS, immunosuppressive agents)
Reed Sternberg cells:
-see when?
-CD markers?
Hodgkin's Lymphoma;
CD15+, CD30+
Multiple Myeloma
-monoclonal plasma cell neoplasm: incr of one type of Ig; usually IgG (55%), then IgA (25%)
-MC primary bone tumor (most bone tumors d/t metastasis)
*M protein (Monoclonl Ig spike)
*Bence Jones proteins (Ig light chains) in urine
-rouleau formation (RBC's stacked like poker chips)
Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia
"macroglobulin"=IgM spike
-M spike=IgM
translocation and gene for Burkitt's Lymphoma
t(8,14)
c-myc

“8 y/o boy named C-Myc Burkitt”
translocation and gene for CML
t(9,22)
brc-abl (Tx: Gleevec)

“9,11 was NYC;
9,22 is Philadelphia”
translocation and gene for Ewing's sarcoma
[Ewing's sarcoma=malignant bone tumor]

t(11,22)
translocation for
Mantle cell lymphoma
t(11,14)
translocation and gene for Follicular Lymphoma
t(14,18)
-bcl gene

Imagine a follicle riding a BiCycLe=BCL
translocation for AML, type M3
AML, type M3=Promyelocytic Leukemia

t(15,17)

Tx: ATRA (All-Trans Retinoic Acid)
Histiocytosis X
-caused by Langerhans cells (macrophages) that infiltrate the lung
-young ppl, worse with smokers
2006 shelf: how distinguish hemophilia from vWF?
Hemophilia A: only PTT incr (BT does not increase)
vWF: PTT and BT increases
2006 shelf: what is Non-hodgkins lymphoma assoc w?
HIV (immunosuppresion)
2006 shelf: what is Burkitt's lymphoma associated with?
EBV and jaw lesion (African/endemic type)
what neoplasm is assoc w/albinism?
all skin cancers:

SCC
Basal Cell CA
melanoma
what predisposes to malignant melanoma?
dysplastic nevus (precursor lesion)
*xeroderma pigmentosum,
*albinism

*These predispose to all skin CA's:

SCC
Basal Cell CA
melanoma)
assoc tumor suppressor gene and chromosome for

melanoma
p16;

9p

("p"16 ~ 9"p")
assoc tumor suppressor gene and chromosome for

pancreatic cancer
DPC

(“PC”=Pancreatic Cancer)
assoc tumor suppressor gene and chromosome for

colon cancer
DCC

(“CC”=Colon cancer)
CA-19-9 suggests what tumor
pancreatic adenoCA

("CA"-19-9 ~ CArcinoma)
alkylating agents can cause what cancer?
leukemia
aflatoxins can cause what cancer
hepatocellular CA
asbestos predisposes to what cancer
#1=bronchogenic CA, esp SCC (Goljan)
#2=mesothelioma
what causes
paraneoplastic ACTH
sm cell lung CA
what causes
paraneoplastic ADH
-sm cell lung CA

-intracranial neoplasm (makes sense b/c hypothalamus (near brain) produces ADH)
what CA causes:

incr Ca++
TGF-beta
TNF-alpha
IL-1
paraneoplastic PTH-like peptide:

SCC lung;
RCC (Renal Cell CA)--makes sense;
breast CA
multiple myeloma (lysed bone)
bone metastasis (lysed bone)
what CA causes polycythemia
RCC (makes sense)
hemangioblastoma (makes sense)

==>paraneoplastic EPO production
==>polycythemia
what tumor causes muscle weakness
muscle weakness=Lambert-Eaton syndrome:

thymoma
sm cell lung CA

==>Ig ag presynaptic Ca++ channels at NMJ
==>Lambert-Eaton syndrome
what tumor causes gout, urate nephropathy
leukemias
lymphomas

==>incr degradation of purines
==>incr uric acid
==>gout & urate nephropathy
pareneoplastic effects of sm cell lung CA
ACTH
ADH

Ig against pre-synaptic Ca++ channels in NMJ
==>Lambert-Eaton syndrome (musc weakness)
pareneoplastic effects of intracranial neoplasms
ADH (makes sense)
pareneoplastic effects of lung SCC
incr PTH-like peptide==>incr Ca++
incr TGF-beta
incr TNF-alpha
incr IL-2
paraneoplastic effects of breast CA
incr PTH-like peptide==>incr Ca++
incr TGF-beta
incr TNF-alpha
incr IL-2
paraneoplastic effects of multiple myeloma
incr PTH-like peptide lyses bone==>incr Ca++
incr TGF-beta
incr TNF-alpha
incr IL-2
paraneoplastic effects of bone metastasis
incr PTH-like peptide lyses bone==>incr Ca++
incr TGF-beta
incr TNF-alpha
incr IL-2
paraneoplastic effects of renal cell CA
EPO (makes sense)==>polycythemia
incr PTH-like peptide (makes sense)==>incr Ca++
incr TGF-beta
incr TNF-alpha
incr IL-2
paraneoplastic effects of thymoma
Ig against pre-synaptic Ca++ channels in NMJ
==>Lambert-Eaton syndrome (musc weakness)
paraneoplastic effects of hemangioblastoma
EPO==>polycythemia