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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
define COPD
airflow obstruction
compare COPD and restrictive in terms of volumes
COPD (dec FEV inc FVC dec FEV:FVC) Restrictive (dec FEV dec FVC same FEV:FVC)
what are the 4 pathologies of COPD
bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema, bronchiectasis
what is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic asthma, name the cause and target populaton of each
extrinsic is immunie mediated while instrinsic is non-immune. The cause of extrinsic is type I allergies and onset is childhood, The cause of intrinsic is exercise/cold and onset is adulthood.
what are two pathological changes with asthma
curschmann spirals (whorl like accum of epithelial), charcot leyden crystals (crystalloids of eosinophil derived proteins)
what are four complications of asthma
infections, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, status asthmaticus
name the pathological findings of each: asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, bronchiectasis
asthma: bronchial smooth muscle hypertrophy, hyperplasia of submucosal and goblets, bronchitis: hyperplasia of submucosal, emphysema: dilation of air spaces, destruction of alveolar wall, bronchiectasis: dilated bronchi with inflammation and necrosis, alveolar fibrosis
define bronchitis criteria
produtive cough for more than 3 consecutive months over at least 2 years
what is the primary cause of bronchitis
what is the primary cause of emphysema
name the four types of emphysema
centrilobular, panacinar, paraseptal, irregular
where is centrilobular emphysema found
respiratory bronchioles of upper part of lobes
where is panacinar emphysema found
terminal bronchioles down to alveoli, uniformly throughout lung
what is alpha1 antitrypsin deficiency (piZZ) associated with
panacinar emphysema, hepatic cirrhosis
where is paraseptal emphysema found and what is it associated with
alveoli, bullae or blebs
what can emphysema blebs lead to
what is the major predisposing factor for bronchiectasis
bronchial obstruction, usually tumor… sometimes associated with Kartagener syndrome aka primary ciliary dyskinesia
what are the symptoms of Kartagener syndrome
sinusistis, bronchiectasis, situs inversus, hearing loss, sterility
where is bronchiectasis most often found
lower lobes of both lungs
what are the symptoms of bronchiectasis
copious purulent sputum, hemoptysis (bloody mucus), lung abscess