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85 Cards in this Set

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Describe 2 general classifications of asbestos
1. Serpentine - curly configuration
2. Amphobile asbestos - straight fibers.
What is one member of the serpentine classification of asbestos?
Chrysotile "white asbestos". Has a fiber quality.
What is one member of the amphobile asbestos family?
Crocidolite "blue asbestos". May cause mesothelioma.
What aspect of crocidolite makes it particularly hazardous?
Fibers are very long and narrow. Can travel axially in the air stream and get deep into the lungs.
Name 7 pathological manifestations of asbestos.
1. Hyaline pleural plaques.
2. Asbestosis (parenchymal fibrosis of lung).
3. Mesothelioma (malig.neoplasm of pleural surface).
4. Carcinoma of lung parenchyma. (smoking=cofactor)
5. Carcinoma of other organs.
6. Rounded atelectasis.
7. Benign pleural effusions.
4.
Describe 2 general classifications of asbestos
1. Serpentine - curly configuration
2. Amphobile asbestos - straight fibers.
What is one member of the serpentine classification of asbestos?
Chrysotile "white asbestos". Has a fiber quality.
What is one member of the amphobile asbestos family?
Crocidolite "blue asbestos". May cause mesothelioma.
What aspect of crocidolite makes it particularly hazardous?
Fibers are very long and narrow. Can travel axially in the air stream and get deep into the lungs.
Name 7 pathological manifestations of asbestos.
1. Hyaline pleural plaques.
2. Asbestosis (parenchymal fibrosis of lung).
3. Mesothelioma (malig.neoplasm of pleural surface).
4. Carcinoma of lung parenchyma. (smoking=cofactor)
5. Carcinoma of other organs.
6. Rounded atelectasis.
7. Benign pleural effusions.
4.
4 ways smoking may exacerbate asbestos.
1. Impeding mucous ciliary clearance & macrophage activity.
2. Increasing asbestos infiltration.
3. Facilitating binding of asbestos.
4. Carcinogens from cig. adsorb onto surfaces of asbestos which acts as vehicle to deliver or retain them in lung.
A low dose of asbestos is associated with what condition, regardless of smoking status?
Mesothelioma.
A higher dose of asbestos + smoking causes an increased risk in what condition?
Carcinoma of the lung parenchyma.
A modest level of asbestos is associated with what condition?
Benign pleural changes.
High asbestos exposure is associated with what condition, regardless of smoking?
Asbestosis
What is an Ames test?
Screening test for possible carcinogens using strains of Salmonella Typhimurium that are unable to synthesize histadine.Carcinogen causes mutation that allows it to produce histadine.
What advantage does Ames test offer over animal models?
Allows for testing potential carcinogens outside of animals so that the animals' metabolism will not effect it.
Describe how a chemical test of carcinogens is used?
Test agent's chemical properties are evaluated. i.e. "bay region" of polycyclic molecules.
What is Allergenic Alevolitis (aka Hypersensitivity penumonitis)?
Combined Type 3 (Ab response) and Type 4 (T cell). Some causal agents are Thermophilic Actinomycetes.
Name 3 toxic gases that can cause non-cardiac pulmonary edema.
1. chlorine
2. phosgene
3. cadmium
What is pneumoconosis?
Inflammation commonly leading to fibrosis of the lungs caused by the inhalation of dust in various occupations, characterized by pain in chest, cough c little/no expectoration, dyspena, reduced thoracic excursion, cyanosis and fatigue after exertion.
Describe 2 categories of inorganic dusts that can cause pneumoconosis.
1. Fibrogenic (silica, asbestos, silicates.

2. Non-Fibrogenic (iron, tin, barium)
What is Simple Coal Workers' Pneumoconioses?
Pneumonoconiosis from accumulation of carbon and silica in the lungs from inhaled coal dust. Silica content produces fibrous nodules. Char by coal dust macules located adjuacent to respiratory broncioles.
What are coal dust macules?
1-2mm diameter aggregates of carbon laden macrophages located adjacent to respiratory bronchioles .
What is silicosis?
Simple (enlarged hilar lymph nodes surrounded by Ca.
Acute (alveoli filled c protein-rich fluid, causes fast death).
List 6 noxious toxic gases.
1. Ammonia NH3.
2. Sulfur Dioxide. SO2.
3. Chlorine. Cl.
4. Nitrogen Dioxide. NO2.
5. Ozone. O3.
6. Phosgene.COCl2.
What disease is associated with oxides of nitrogen gases.
Silo Filler's disease, which causes damage to epithelial lining of airway and bronchiolitis obliterans (scarring).
Describe how carbon monoxide inhalation can cause death.
CO binds more avidly c hemoglobin than does oxygen. Hem not avail to bind O2. CO causwes shift in dissociation curve, so taht remaining unbound hemoglobin is prevented from releasing O2 (Left shift).
Describe 8 effects of lead poisoning.
1.Anemia via -erthrypoieis, +hemolysis, -RBC life span. (Have +ALA excretion in urine due to build of intermediates in hemoglobin synethesis.
2. Reticulocytosis. Bone marrow releases more immature RBCs to +RBC production and compensate for anemia.
3. Colic.
4. Renal tubular acidosis (Fanconi's syndrome). Intranuclear inclusions.
5. CNA damage (encephalopathy, ADD-like symptoms)
6. Peripheral neuropathy.
7. Epiphysis lead lines.
8. Lead line at gingival margin dur to precipitates of lead sulfide.
2.
Describe a classic microscopic sign of lead exposure.
Basophilic stippling of RBCs (blue-staining stops on RBCs)
What form of taking in metallic Hg is hazardous?
Inhalation.
What form of mercury is most toxic?
Organic (methylated ) mercury. Is soluble and absorable by GI system.
What is the leading cause of neonatal deaths?
Congenital anomalies.
What is the primary cause of chromosomal neonatal deaths?
Trisomy. (15, 16 - the ones that lead to death. Not 21,18,13.
Describe 4 char of Turners syndrome (XO)
1. fluid in abdomen.
2. Webbing of neck skin.
3. Horsehoe kidney.
4. coarctation of aorta.
(may be mosaic)
Describe 4 char of triploidy (69 chromosomes)
(Note; more dangerous if extra set from father).
1. large head.
2. spina bifida/NTDs
3. hydrocephalus
4. syndactly
Describe 4 char of Trisomy 21 (down's syndrome)
1. palpebral fissure.
2. simian crease
3. wide space b/w 1st/2nd toe
4. little finger turned in.
4 char of Trisomy 18 (Edward's syndrome)
1. Cleft lip/palate
2. Radial aplasia
3. Missing thumb.
4. absent radial bone.
Describe the 3 general categories of congenital anomalities in neonates.
1. Malformation (poor formation, something wrong in embryolic process).
2. Deformation. (result of abnormal forces on normal tissues that change their appearance or position).
3. Disruption. Morphologic defect resultinf from extrinsic interference with a normal process (amniotic banding)
Give an example of malformation + deformation.
Renal agenesis. Malformation causes no kidney; deformation caused by lack of embryonic fluid.
List 6 potential causes of disruption.
1. Radiation.
2. Chemical/drug.
3. Metabolic. (PKU, diabetes)
4. Infectious (rubella, toxoplasmosis)
5. Immunologic.
6. Thermodisruptive.
List 4 causes of congenital anomalies.
1. Chromosomal defects.
2. Single gene defects.
3. Environmental defects.
4. Multifactoria defects.
What distinguishes a dominant single gene defect from a recessive one?
Dominant - mutation in gene that codes for structural protein (achondroplasia, sickle cell)
Recessive - mutations that code for enzymes (Meckel syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, storage disorders)
Describe characteristics of Meckel syndrome.
1. Polydactyly
2. cystic kidneys
3. cystic liver
4. encephaloceles
2 examples of multifactorial disorders.
1. Cleft palate.
2. Neural tube defects.
6 Laws of Teratogenesis.
1. Susceptibility depends on genotype.
2. Susceptibiity depends on developmental stage of exposure.
3. Cause malformations by specific pathologic mechanisms.
4. Maternal factors may influence teratogenicity.
5. Manifestations include death, malformations, growth retardation,functional impairment & transplacental tumorogenesis.
6. Manifestations range in frequency and severity.
Describe features of FAS.
1. Small size.
2. small brain.
3. short palpebral fissure.
4. Facial dysmorphism.
What is a syndrome?
A recognizable pattern of anomalies which is known or thought to be causally related.
Describe features of DiGeorge Syndrome
1. Thymic aplasia.
2. Deficient parathyroids.
3. Congenital defects in heart and great vessels (gene mutation prevents 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouches from developing properly).
What is a sequence?
A pattern of cascade anomalies that can be explained on the basis of a single initiating event.
What form of taking in metallic Hg is hazardous?
Inhalation.
What form of mercury is most toxic?
Organic (methylated ) mercury. Is soluble and absorable by GI system.
What is the leading cause of neonatal deaths?
Congenital anomalies.
What is the primary cause of chromosomal neonatal deaths?
Trisomy. (15, 16 - the ones that lead to death. Not 21,18,13.
Describe 4 char of Turners syndrome (XO)
1. fluid in abdomen.
2. Webbing of neck skin.
3. Horsehoe kidney.
4. coarctation of aorta.
(may be mosaic)
What is Prune Belly Syndrome?
Pattern of cascade anomalities due to defect in posterior urethral valves obstruct the urethra, leading to backup of urine in bladder & kidney.
What is the acronym for the most common association of defects.
VATER
1. Vertebral Anomalies.
2. Anal Atresia.
3. T-E Fistula.
4. Radial Dysplasia.
What is hydrops?
Accumulation of edema in fluid of fetus during intrauterine growth.
Describe causal mechanisms of hydrops?
1. Congestive heart failure.
2. Portal hypertension.
3. Lymphatic or vascular obstruction.
4. Hypoalbuminemia.
Describe 2 general classifications of Hydrops.
1. Immune (Rh, hemolytic anemia.
2. Non-immune (cardiac malformations, chromosomal abnormality, monochorionic twins, infection, anemia, tumors)
Describe 6 potential causes of intrauterine growth retardation.
1. Placental problems.
2. Confined placental mosaicism.
3. Maternal vascular disease.
4. Multiple gestations.
5. congenital anomalies.
6. congenial infecions.
What time defines perinatal mortality, postneonatal mortality?
Perinatal - greater than 20 weeks of gestation to 1st month of life.

Postneonatal - 1 month to 1 year.

Infant death = death within first year of life.
list 5 common causes of infant death.
1. Birth defects.
2. Prematurity.
3. SIDS
4. Maternal complications.
5. Accidents.
List causes of perinatal death.
1. Fetal infection (ascending, maternal hematogenous infection (TORCH), Syphilis, Varicella
2. Tumors of infancy
Examples of benigan neoplasia in early life.
Benign tumors -
* Hemangioma
* Teratoma - cells from all three germlines (contain variety of different tissues)
* Hamartoma - overgrowth of tissues whieh are normally present in that organ.
Examples of malignant neoplasms in early life.
1. Wilm's Tumor
2. Neuroblastoma (small blue-stained tumors).
What factors does the Gompertz approach to aging take into account?
1. Life Span.
2. Probability of dying
3. Survivorship.
4. Life expectancy.
What is the main reason for increasing life expecancy.
Reduction in childhood mortality.
Have maximum life span and the rate of aging changed?
No. max = 120 and rate of aging hasn't changed.
What is the Gompertz equation?
probability of dying = infant death rate + (rate of dying)(time)
What can be said of a disease that doesn't follow the Gompertz relationship?
Then it is not age-related.
What happens to the death curve as you remove attributable events?
Move toward programmed death.
Describe 6 theories of aging.
1. DNA damage and repair.
2. Error catastrophe (prob c proteins lead to genetic abnormality).
3. Oxidation & free radicals.
4. Immunologic (prob secondary)
5. Neuroendocrine. (hypothal-pituitary axis)
6. Programmed aging (Hayflick #, telomerase)
Describe how error catastrophe can cause aging?
Problem with proteins associated with chromosomes lead to genetic abnormality and aberrant protein synthesis & death.
Protein & nuclei acid glycosylation . X-linking impairs passage of nutrients.
What does trymadine incorporation into DNA measure?
Measure of DNA repair (i.e. unscheduled DNA synthesis).
What enzyme is important in aging?
DNA helicase.
What is the role of SIRT1 in aging?
SIRT1 is a gene product that inhibits Bax, a protein that leads to apoptosis and preventing accumulation of fat.
Effect of caloric restriction on SIRT1?
As calories do down, SIRT1 levels down up. SIRT1 inhibits Bax and therefore limits apoptosis.
Describe 2 ways immunity changes with age.
1. Less protection against infection.
2. More antibodies directed against normal tissue.
Describe results of inactivation of growth pathways.
1. Decrease glucose or insulin-signaling.
2. Upregulate antixodant enzymes.
3. Accumulation of glycogen & fat.
4. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor act to promote stress.
5. Sexual maturity delayed and fertility decreased.
6. Intellectual development retarded.
7. Lessened osteoarthritis.
Caloric intake, free radical damage & insulin-like peptide are related to?
Oxidative Injury.
Describe a histological change associated with aging.
Lipofusein - derived from mitochondria. Is a marker of aging that has no bearing on cardiac function.
What is distinction between aging vs age-related change?
Aging is inevitable with age. (loss of position sense).
Age-related means that something is associated with aging and occurs at an older age. (AD disease)
List 5 neurological consequences of aging.
1. - central processing.
2. Maintained verbal skills.
3. Nigrostriatal pathway decline.
4. Receptor organ change.
5. Sleep shortened with arousals.
Describe ways to increase SIRT1.
1. Quercetin & piceatannol (tea & apples)
2. Reservatol (grapes & red wines)