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28 Cards in this Set

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Abrasion
superficial tearing of epidermis; rapid repair; heal w/o scarring
Contusion
collection of blood extravascularly; damage depends on location
Hematoma
collection of blood under skin
Laceration
sloppy cut (do not confuse with incision- intentional)
avulsion
tearing away of a large chunk of tissue
Fracture
bone OR rupture of outer membrane of body organ (eg. liver)
Puncture
small round holes in the skin
Blast injuries
(sudden increase or decrease in P)—can result in traumatic death
Air blast: P waves enter body orifices (lungs/GI tract can explode)
Water blast: same thing, but need less F in an explosion to cause same amt of damage as an air blast
Immersion blast: P waves act on body surfaces
Caisson’s disease (decompression sickness):
the bends & the chokes
Nitrogen or helium gas breathed under high P, rapid decompression, gaseous emboli in blood; ISCHEMIC NECROSIS(in brain, heart, etc)
Frostbite
- severe hypothermia (acute- freezing temps)
- damage from hypoxia & membrane rupture (cells freeze)
Trench foot
prolonged exposure to cold (chronic- non-freezing temps)
Cold- localized injury--Mechanism
vasoconstriction of periph capillaries in R. to cold
Prolonged vasoconstriction: ischemic damage to mm and nn
Vasomotor paralysis: capillary dilation & congestion: erythema

Endothelial cell damage; fluid loss (transudate), blistering

Thrombi, occluded vessels, ischemic necrosis, gangrene All happens in few hours w/ frostbite
1st degree burn
sunburn; erythema, some edema, some necrotic area; no scarring
2st degree burn
does not involve adnexal structures (sweat glands, etc)

blistering; erythema & edema; maybe scarring
3rd degree burn
full thickness burn of dermis & epidermis; involves adnexal structures; exudates not contained- common complication of infection of exudates: scarring common
Escar
tissue as a result of burns; attempt by the body to seal off the body
Tx of Burns
skin grafts (from ano area of person’s body, from cadaver, from lab)

Complication: abnormal scarring: viscious cicatrisation
Body can be divided into _____ trunks to describe how much of body burned
9%
Heat cramps:
dehydration (in conc in electrolytes causes cramping)
Heat exhaustion:
mm exhausted from cramping (from heat cramps)
Heat pyrexia (heat stroke):
dehydration; next step after heat exhaustion; heat goes to brain; metabolism can func at that temp- pass out
Malignant hyperthermia
Individual lacking an enzyme needed to metabolize some gaseous inhalants used during anesthesia --increased body temperature during surgery
Electrical Injury
Burns at site of entry and exit; damage depends on pathway takes through body
If electricity runs through areas of  conductivity (heart, etc): can be fatal
If runs through areas of high resistance, get burns
2 forms of Ionizing Radiation Injury
Electromagnetic Rays or Charged Particles
Ionizing Radiation Injury
-Transfers e to cells and hits DNA

-Radioresponsiveness of cells differ, higher in in cells with higher mitotic activity

-Exposure: varies w/ how close you are to the site of radiation
Results of Ionizing Radiation Injury
Hematopoietic syndrome: Low radiation doses; mild decrease of bone marrow and blood cells

GI syndrome: erosion and ulceration of GI mucosa

Cerebral syndrome: high dose of radiation; convulsions, coma, death
Ionizing Radiation used as treatment for ________
neoplasms
Mechanism of Ionizing Radiation Injury
--Cell changes: Nucleus swells (or in severe damage shrinks); vacuoles form; mitos become disorderly.
Vascular changes: Early: vascular dilation: see focal areas of necrosis in blood vessels
Late: vessel has scarring in medial areas—fibrosis & adhesions
Ectatic vessels