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86 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
MCC dementia
Alzheimer's
anterior atrophy of the cortex
ventricular system enlarged
Alzheimer's
Anatomical site most serverely affected in AD
hippocampus and adjacent enterhinal system
area of the hippocamus most sensitive to hypoxia
CA1
Neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques
AD
2 AD findings in addition to tangles and plaques
gliosis
amyloid angiopathy
spontaneous hemorrhage in basal ganglia
HTN induced
accumulation of microtubule associated protein aka perihelical filaments
neurofibrillary tangles
what stain is used to see tangles on H&E
silver
2 types of plaques and how are they different
neuritic: Beta amyloid core
diffuse aB42
neuritic plaque is used 4 diagnosis of AD
diffuse natural part of aging
central amyloid core w/ radiating spicules surrounded by microglia
neuritic plaque
amyloid configuration
B pleated sheet
spontaneous hemmorrhage in deep white matter
amyloid angiopathy associated with AD
rod-like eosinophilic bodies in hippocampus; main consitutent is actin
Hirano bodies
where is granulovacuolar degeneration most likely seen
hippocampal pyramidal cells
how can you differentiate neurons from astrocytes
neurons have prominent nucleolus
genetic risk factors for AD
early onset: Downs chromosome 21, 14
late: alz precursor protein (21) & ApoE (19)
Lewy bodies
parkinson's
degen of structures that stain with ubiquitin and alpha synuclein but not silver stains
lewy body disorders
which structures show degeneration in lewy body disorders
pigmented nuclei: substantia nigra, dorsal motor nucleus of vagus, hippocampus, amygdala, locus coeruleus
Lew body disorder gene
synuclein gene on 4q
cognitive decline, visual and nonvisual hallucinations, narcoleptic drug sensitivity. Diagnosis made at autopsy
diffuse LB disease
Lew bodies in deep layers of temporal,c ingulate and insular cortex
diffuse LB disease
CN in interpeduncular foci
III
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) aka
steele-richardson-olszewski
man walks with his head back
expressionless face
dysphagia
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)
how does PSP differ from parkinson's microscopically
PSP more areas of brain affected
loss of neurons
brief focal neurologic infarcts with neurologic deficits; loss of myelin; arteriosclerosis
Binswanger disease
Binswanger disease is associated with what types of cells
foamy macrophages
degenerative disease that spares the posterior 2/3 of superior temporal gyrus and is associated with atrophy of striatum
Pick's
pt neglects of appearance and inappropriate behavior
frontal lobe dementias eg. Picks
T/F: Lou Gehrig's disease affects bilateral proximal muscles
F: bilateral distal muscles
dark staining brown (silver and ubiquitin)bodies in dentate
Pick bodies
when does motor neuron dementia usually present
6th decade
inclusions in dentate that are ubiquitin positive
motor neuron type dementia
atrophy of ventral root
bunina bodies in anterior horn
ballooned neurons and axonal spheroids
Lou Gehrig's
Huntington's disease: gene
4p
trinucleotide repeat: CAG
Huntington's: what structues are affected
atrophy of striatum
neuronal loss and gliosis in striatum and cortex
Huntington's histology
loss of medium GABA+ spiney neurons
diagnostic of AD
neuritic plaques
injury to the myelin sheath, but relative preservation of the axon
demyelinating diseases
T/F: There are multifocal lesions In demyelinating diseases
T
T/F: myelin loss is most severe around arteries In demyelinating diseases
F: most severe around the veins (perivenous) and often patchy
T/F: you see perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes and plasma cells in demyelinating diseases
T
name the only demyelinating disease that does not have multifocal lesions
central pontine myelinolysis
MS: etiology
immune attach on myelin sheath; influenced by environmental and genetic factors
MS: who
females. onset 20-40yo
Name variants of MS
Acute (Marburg)
Schilder variant
concentric sclerosis (Balo)
Classic
MS variant that mimics neoplastic mass
marburg
MS variant seen in peds
schilder
MS variant with similar histology, but fatal clinical course
Concentric
MS: histology of LP
oligoclonal bands of immunoglobulin in CSF (caused by proliferation of B cells)
MS: brain structures
optic nerve, brainstem, spinal cord
MS: MRI findings
periventricular lesions in white matter
well-circumscribed,horseshoe-shaped ring enhancing lesions
MS: diagnostic test
myelin stain highlights trouble spots
slide looks normal with Bielschowsky silver stain
30yo female presents with optic neuritis, CN signs, ataxia, spasticity, motor and sensory impairment, loss of voluntary bladder control
MS
3 types of plaques in MS
active chronic
inactive chronic
shadow
MS-like disease seen in Asians
Neuromyelitis optica aka devic
why is Neuromyelitis optica (Devics) in it's own group
lack of oligoclonal bands
neutrophils and protein in CNS
Necrosis
Neuromyelitis optica (Devics): prognosis
rapidly progressive
monophasic disease which follows a viral infection
acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
pt presents with headache, lethargy and coma 3days after URTI
acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
diffuse perivenous demyelinating not-well circumscribed lesions
acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: early and late findings
early: PMNs
late: mononuclear cells with lipid-laden macrophages
acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: mortality rate
20-30%
Acute Hemorrhagic Leukoencephalitis: etiology
necrosis of small vessels following URTI
"ball and ring" petechial hemorrhages in white and gray matter (cerebral purpura)
acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
perivascular fibrin deposition and fibrinoid necrosis of small vessels
neutrophils
acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
histological features of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis may also be seen in ....
malaria
fat embolism
PML: etiology
JV virus
white matter pits around junction between white/gray matter
PML
bizarre astrocytes
intranuclear viral inclusions in oligodendrocytes
PML
cental pontine myelinolysis: who
alcoholic, malnourished, severe electrolyte or osmolar imbalances, liver transplkant recipients
cental pontine myelinolysis: why
too-rapid correction of hyponatremia--> osmotic stress
cental pontine myelinolysis: presentation
sudden quadriplegia, fatal course
diamond-shaped, symmetrical demyelination in central pons at level of CN5
cental pontine myelinolysis
cental pontine myelinolysis: which areas are spared
periventricular and subpial
cental pontine myelinolysis: what's found in 10% of cases
extrapontine lesions
white matter pits around junction between white/gray matter
PML
bizarre astrocytes
intranuclear viral inclusions in oligodendrocytes
PML
cental pontine myelinolysis: who
alcoholic, malnourished, severe electrolyte or osmolar imbalances, liver transplkant recipients
cental pontine myelinolysis: why
too-rapid correction of hyponatremia--> osmotic stress
cental pontine myelinolysis: presentation
sudden quadriplegia, fatal course
diamond-shaped, symmetrical demyelination in central pons at level of CN5
cental pontine myelinolysis
cental pontine myelinolysis: which areas are spared
periventricular and subpial
cental pontine myelinolysis: what's found in 10% of cases
extrapontine lesions