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43 Cards in this Set

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What is canine cutaneous histiocytoma?
commonly occurring spontaneously regression round cell tumors seen in purebred dogs at 3 years of age and younger

not transmissible
Where are the locations of cutaneous histiocytomas?
head, ears and extremities
What are the gross and histological appearances of histiocytomas?
gross: appear red, nodular (solitary) occasionally ulcerative causing secondary bacterial infections (difficult to distinguish grossly)

Histo: granular chomatin and numerous mitotic figures
What breed is prediposed to Histiocytoma?
Boxers

however Shar peis have a predilection for multiple lesions
What are histiocytoma known for?
spontaneous regression

mechanism poorly understood but maybe due to cell mediated reaction
What are histiocytomas formed by
specialied laugerhan cells

specialized dendritic cells that presents antigens from the epidermis to inflammatory cells
What are the treatment options for histiocytomas?
wait it out - will most likely regress on its own

surgical removal
What is cutaneous lymphoma?
rare hematopoietic neoplasm but when it is seen it is most common in equine
What does cutaneous lymphoma look like on histo?
infiltrative neoplasm with indistinct borders
eosinophilic cytoplasm, round to oval nuclei with finely stippled chromatin and variable nucleoli
What are the characteristics of cutaneous lymphoma?
no age, breed, sex predilection

cutaneous form are T cell rich B cell lymphomas where mitotic figures are important
What is the prognosis of cutaneous lymphoma?
poor

equine live about 18-48 months after diagnosis
How is cutaneous lymphoma diagnosed?
fine needle aspirate of lesion
What are the two types of cutaneous lymphoma?
epitheliotropic (histiocytic) lymphoma
T cell cutaneous lymphoma
What is the treatment for cutaneous lymphoma?
treatment not well documented but radiation is the treatment of choice

can also try chemo with or without excision, surgical excision or do nothing
What are mast cell tumors?
tumors or granulation cell that affect dog between the ages of 7-9

cell release histamine in response to allergic reaction and inflammation
Where are mast cells tumors located?
mostly on the trunk
extremities
head
What is the etiological agent of mast cell tumors?
mutation in c-KIT, virus, chronic inflammation, immunocompromised
How are mast cells diagnosed?
fine needle aspiration which is 96% diagnostic

can be determined after incision or excision biopsy of the tumor
How are Mast cell tumors categorized?
based on differentiation, invasive, cellularity, morphology and mitotic index
What markers do we see with mast cell tumors?
AgNORs
Ki67
IMUD
What are the signs of mast cells?
ulceration,erythemia, pruritus and localized edema
What is the prognosis of mast cell tumors?
poor if seen on the nail bed, oral cavity and muzzle

can be seen in inguinal region, prepeutial and perineal areas
What are plasmacytomas?
solitary masses that when the are malignant originate from differentiated B lymphocytes

common in older, male animals especially yorkshire terriers
Where do you find extramedullary plasmacytomas?
skin of the head and digits

lips, ears, chin and digits

can progress to multiple myeloma - systemic with bone marrow involvement
How can you treat EMP?
benign tumors can just be excised

treat with radiation, chemo, prednisone, and doxorubicin if surgical route does not work
How can you diagnose EMP?
with IHC looking for CD79
What are anaplastic soft tissue sarcomas?
neoplasm that usually cause giant masses that are ulcerated and have multiple areas of necrosis

see plepmorphic and mitotoc figures on histo along with multinucleated giant cells
What are the treatment options for anaplastic soft tissue sarcomas?
surgical excision with margins of normal tissue
irradation therapy
Chemo
amputation in aggressive tumors
How are soft tissue sarcomas categorized?
By grading

looking at differentiation, mitotic figures and necrosis to add to grade

if 3 or less = grade 1
4-5 = grade 2
greater than 6 = grade 3
What are histocytic sarcomas?
cells that originate from interstitial dendritic cells for antigen presenting

highly agressive and seen in bernese mountain dogs
What are the 2 forms of histiocytic sarcomas?
local
disseminated
How are histiocytic sarcomas diagosed?
by IHC
CD11C and MHC class II
Where can histiocytic sarcomas be found?
spleen, liver, bone marrow and lung

can show a false IMHA
poor diagnosis
What is osteosarcoma?
a tumor in older large breed male dogs that originate from osteoblastic cells
What are treatment options for osteosarcoma?
limb removal
limb sparing surgery
chemo
radiation
Where are locations of osteosarcoma?
towards the knee
away from the elbow

can be seen on the maxilla, mandible

in metastasis can be seen in the lungs and brain
What is the prognosis of osteosarcoma?
poor even with surgery animals don't live more than 18 months before reoccurrence and metastasis
What is malignant melanoma?
neoplastic cells containing melanin seeing 8-10 cells per high powered field
What are the common sites for malignant melanoma?
oral (90% are malignant)
lymphnodes
lungs
tonsils
What is the breed predisposition of malignant melanoma?
goldens
cockers
scottish terriers
any old dog
dogs with dark oral mucosa
How are malignant melanomas characterized?
staging by size and metastasis

stage 1 has the best prognosis

however size to animal proportion complicates staging
What is the prognosis of oral melanoma?
poor
What are treatment options for malignant melanoma?
maxillectoma
mandibulectomy
radiation
immunotherapy - IL-2
Xenogenic DNA vaccine - i year survival