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71 Cards in this Set

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COLLAGENOUS STROMAL response resulting from tumor signals or tumor-stromal interactions seen with certain kinds of malignant neoplasms
Desmoplasia
Benign tumor of epithelium
Adenoma
Malignant epithelial neoplasm
Carcinoma
Malignant CT neoplasm
Sarcoma
Adenocarcinoma is most often associated with _________
Desmoplasia
Histiologic hallmark of Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Keratin pearl
Malignant tumor of smooth muscle
Leiomyosarcoma
Mass of disorganized mature cells that are native to the tissue
Hamartoma
Completely normal tissue in a foreign place
Choristoma

*pancreatic tissue in the stomach wall
List the steps of progression to a Malignant Neoplasm
Clone -> Dysplasia -> Carcinoma in situ -> Malignant Neoplasm
Most common benign tumor in women
Leiomyoma = benign neoplasm of smooth muscle of myometrium in uterus
What are Leiomyomas a common cause of?
Menorhhagia = excessive menstrual discharge
Lymphatic spread is the usual route of this type of malignancy
Carcinoma
Hematogenous spread is the usualy route of this type of malignancy
Sarcoma
Most common primary renal tumor in children
Wilm's tumor
-rapidly growing Malignant tumor
Top 3 causes of cancer deaths in Men
1. Lung
2. Colorectal
3. Prostate
Top 3 causes of cancer deaths in women
1. Lung
2. Breast
3. Colorectal
Type of alteration activating Her-2/neu (EGF-R)
Amplification
Fxn of RET protooncogenes
REceptor Tyrosine kinase
Point Mutation Oncogene associated with Multiple Endocrine Syndromes and Familial Medullary Thyroid Cancer Syndrome
RET
Most common oncogene seen in human tumors
Ras
Organ most commonly affected by RAS mutation
Pancreas
t(9;22)
ABL
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
ABL oncogene
Treated with Gleevec (Imatinib Mesylate)
ABL oncogene
Neuroblastomas and Small cell lung CA
N-myc due to amplification
t(8:14)
c-myc = Burkitt's Lymphoma
t(11:14)
Cyclin-D1
Mantle Cell Lymphoma
Cyclin-D1
Rb chromosome
13q14
Osteosarcoma tumor suppressor gene
Rb
Most common tumor suppressor genes found in neoplasms
p53
inherited p53 mutations
Li-Fraumeni Syndrome
-sarcomas
-breat CA
-brain tumors
-adrenal cortical CA's
degrades B-catenin
APC
t(14;18)
Bcl-2
Follicular Lymphomas
Bcl-2
Evasion of apoptosis gene
Bcl-2
What is HNPCC due to?
inherited mutation in DNA Mismatch Repair genes
Microsatellite Instability
HNPCC

*difference in # of tandem repeats
MSH2 and MLH1
DNA Mismatch Repair genes involved in HNPCC
Difference between Familial Polyposis Coli and HNPCC
FPC is guaranteed to get Colon CA

HNPCC just allows a permissive state
Fxn of BRCA
cofactors in repair of ds-DNA breaks
2 major angiogenic factors secreted by tumors
VEGF

bFGF
Tumor Invasion Steps:
-down-regulation of __1__
-Overexpression of __2__
-__3__ secretion
-cell receptors attach to __4__ in EC matrix
1. E-cadherin
2. Laminin receptor
3. Type IV collagenase
4. Fibronectin
Hypermethylation of sections of DNA suppressing tsc of that portion (i.e. tumor suppressor genes)
Epigenetic changes
in vitro studies show that single __1__ are insufficient to produce cancer
Oncogenes
Explain Gatekeeper hypothesis
tumor suppressor gene mutation enables other genetic mutations to occur
Example of an Indirect reacting Carcinogen
Polycyclic Hydrocarbon
Explain Initiators and Promoters of Carcinogens
Initiator = cause irreversible mutation

Promoters = cause proliferation of initiated cell
What detoxifies Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons?
Glutathione S-transferase
Gene product that Metabolizes Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons?
CYP1A1
List 4 promoters
1. hormones
2. Bile salts
3. increased fat intake
4. Ethanol
Nucleotide Excision repair pathway defect
Xeroderma Pigmentosum

*can't fix Pyrimidine Dimers caused by UV rays
Cancers caused by EBV
Burkitt's Lymphoma
Nasopharyngeal CA
Hodgkins
Lymphoma in AIDS
Oncogenic DNA viruses
HPV
EBV
HBV
Kaposis Sarcoma (HHV-8)
EBV cancer mechanism
induces polyclonal B cell proliferation -> increases risk of t(8:14) of c-myc
Oncogenic RNA viruses
HCV
HTLV-1
Wasting syndrome characterized by progressive loss of lean body mass, loss of body fat, weakness, anemia associated with cancer and cannot be counteracted by feeding
Cachexia

*associated with Malignant Neoplasms
alpha-fetoprotein is a marker for these 2 cancers
Hepatocellular carcinoma

Yolk Sac tumor
PNPS cause of Cushing Syndrome
ACTH release from Small Cell carcinoma of lung
Example of Immunosuppressive cytokine
TGF-beta
Cytokine that can cause Cachexia
TNF-alpha
What is cancer grade based on?
degree of Differentiation
What is cancer staging based on?
extent of tumor spread
PNPS cause of Hypercalcemia
Squamous cell CA of lung -> PTH
Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) associated CA
Colorectal and Pancreatic and Lung Carcinomas
Mucin CA19-9 associated cancers
Pancreatic

Colon
HCG is associated with these tumors
Trophoblastic
High Calcitonin is associated with this CA
Medullary Carcinoma of Thyroid
Catecholamines are associated with this CA
Pheochromocytoma = tumor of Adrenal Medulla
Mucin CA125 associated CA
Ovarian Cancer