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94 Cards in this Set

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Cytokines Th1 cells produce and their effects
IL-2 = proliferation of CD8 cells

IFN-gamma = activates macrophages

*CMI*
Stem cell marker
CD34
T cell secondary signal is through __1__ and it binds to __2__ on APC's
1. CD28

2. B7
MHC locus is found on this chromosome
short arm of 6
mnemonic for Hypersensitivity reactions
ACID

-Anaphylactic = immediate
-Cytotoxic
-Immune complex
-DTH
Example of Type III Hypersensitivity
Glomerulonephritis = immune complexes deposit in glomeruli -> activate complement -> attract inflammatory cells
Primary cell type in DTH (Type IV HS)
Th1 cells
Drug that can reverse the effects of Host versus graft rejection
Cyclosporine = inhibits CD4 release of IL-2

Anti-Thymocyte globulin (anti-CD3+)
Hyperacute Host vs. Graft is due to __1__

Main event in the reaction is __2__
1. pre-formed antibodies

2. Thrombosis
Graft vs. Host rxns primarily occur in these transplants
Bone Marrow
What causes Anergy?
lack of costimulatory signal (i.e. CD28 on T cells)
Most common immunologic disorder to affect females aged 20-40
SLE
"Butter-fly" rash on bridge of nose
SLE
Hypothyroidism is associated with "non-pitting" edema, called __1__

__2__ occurs with hypothyroidism in infants
Myxedema

Cretinism
Autoantibodies to _____ are produced in Pemphigus
Desmogleins (Cadherin)
SLE has a strong __1__ linkage
genetic
What is the most likely source of Cholesterol emboli occluding arteries in the Kidney?
Abdominal aorta
Pathognomic for SLE
anti-dsDNA autoantibodies
drug that can induce SLE
Procainamide
DOC for SLE
Methotrexate
Autoimmune syndrome that affects the Lacrimal and Salivary glands
Sjogren syndrome
Sjogren syndrome has an associated increasd risk of what?
Lymphoma due to polyclonal B cell activation
Autoantibodies to SS-A and SS-B may indicate this autoimmune disease
Sjogren syndrome
CREST is a mild form of this Autoimmune disease
Systemic Sclerosis
Autoantibodies specific for Systemic Sclerosis (3)
anti-nucleolar
anti-Scl-70
anti-centromere
Malar skin rash with eyelid involvement disease? (Raccoon eyes)
Dermatomyositis
Autoantibodies to Myosin, Myoglobin, ANA and elevated serum CK-MM indicates this autoimmune disease
Dermatomyositis
Crohn's Disease:
-usually presents in what decade? __1__
-site usually affected: __2__
1. 2nd

2. terminal ileum
Anti-thyroglobulin and anti-microsomal antibodies
Hashimoto's Thyroiditis
Only autoimmune disease (that we were taught) that affects males more often than females
Goodpasture's Syndrome
Anti-RNP antibodies
Mixed Connective Tissue Disease
X-linked defect in WASP gene that causes Thrombocytopenia, recurrent infections with capsulated microbes, and Eczema
Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome
Most common B cell deficiency
Selective IgA deficiency
increased blood influx into tissues resulting from dilation of arterioles
Active Hyperemia
-inflammation or exercise
stagnation of blood in the capillaries due to impeded outflow of blood on the venous end
Passive Hyperemia or Congestion
-Left or Right Heart failure
Where does Hepatocyte "drop out" occur?
around the Central Vein b/c it is the last place to get oxygenated blood
-due to congestive heart failure
Pinpoint Hemorrhage = ?
Petechia
diffuse superficial hemorrhage in the skin up to 1 cm in diameter
purpura
Most likely location for a hemorrhagic stroke?
Why?
Basal Ganglia b/c this is where the blood vessels lose their External Elastic Lamina
alternating pale platelets and dark RBC's in a thrombus
Lines of Zahn
Most common predisposing factor for Heart Thrombi
MI
Deposition of Fibrin on heart valves without infection
Marantic Endocarditis
cause of Migratory Thrombophlebitis which is associated with Pancreatic and Gastric carcinoma and is due to release of Thromboplastin from cancer cells
Trousseau’s syndrome
Most often cause of Fat Embolism
fracture of long bones
-fat usually lodges in BRAIN or LUNGS
Atherosclerotic plaques can lead to these emboli
Cholesterol
Embolism that most commonly occurs after Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and fractures of Ribs
Bone Marrow Embolism
Places where RED infacts occur
Liver

Lungs
Place where PALE infarts occur
Kidneys
Type of necrosis that accompanies Infarcts
Coagulative
Infarct of the areas of the brain furthest from direct perfusion with blood supply by the Cerebral arteries
Watershed infarcts
Severe generalized edema usually a result of renal failure
Anasarca
Describe reversible phase of Shock
1. peripheral vasoconstriction
2. AV shunting so blood bypasses body and goes to Brain/Heart
3. decreased pH across capillaries
4. Hemodilution = interstitial fluid enters vasculature
Describe Critical phase of Shock
1. max peripheral vasoconstriction
2. decreased capillary perfusion due to Endothelial Hypoxia
3. sludging and clotting of blood
Describe Irreversible phase of Shock
1. Arteriolar Vasodilation
2. increased capillary hydrostatic pressure
3. decreased fxn of vital organs
4. metabolic acidosis
5. death
DIC syndrome caused by Neisseria meningitidis leading to infarction of the Adrenal glands

What do you supplement the patient with?
Waterhouse-Friderichson syndrome

Corticosteroids
Syndrome that is caused by Hypovolemic shock after giving birth resulting in Pituitary necrosis -> loss of Prolactin -> no lactation
Sheehan's syndrome
Give 3 examples of Liquefactive Necrosis
1. Pyogenic abscesses due to microbes
2. Necrosis of Brain due to Ischemia
3. Wet gangrene in Diabetics with Superimposed bacterial infection
Fat necrosis is usually associated with _______
pancreatitis
What is Caseous necrosis usually associated with?
Mycobateria
Granulomatous inflammation
Necrosis of tissue due to Hypoxia or ischemia
Gangrene
Dry gangrene necrosis type
Coagulative
Wet gangrene necrosis type
Liquefactive
What does the Prussian Blue stain identify?
Hemosiderin
exogenous carbon pigment usually in the lungs
Anthracosis
Calcification that occurs at any serum level after previously injured tissue
Dystrophic
Calcification that occurs at high calcium levels and is often related to bone metastes
Metastatic Calcification
What causes Neutrophils to "roll"
Selectins on Endothelial cells
What is "P selectin" stimulated by on endothelial cells? (3)
PAF

Histamine

Thrombin
What is "E selectin" stimulated by on endothelial cells?
IL-1

TNF
Adhesion is dependent on Neutrophils __1__ and Endothelium's __2__
1. Integrins

2. ICAM's
2 chemotactic factors
C5a

LT-B4
Defective degranulation resulting in giant granules in Leukocytes
Chediak-Higashi syndrome
Defect in NADPH Oxidase
Chronic Granulomatous Disease

= cannot produce respiratory burst
3 humoral terminators of Inflammation
1. Lipoxines = LX

2. TGF-beta

3. alpha-1 antitrypsin + alpha-2 macroglobulin
Drug that inhibits Phospholipase A2
Prednisone
PG's F,E,D cause these 4 things
Fever
Edema
vasoDilation
Pain
LT's D, E, C cause these things
Bronchoconstriction
Vasoconstriction
increase Vascular permeability
What do Lipoxins (LXA and LXB) promote?
Chronic Inflammation
Most potent activator of increasing vascular permeability
PAF
Hallmark of Granulomatous Inflammation
Epithelioid histiocytes
In Granulomatous inflammation, tissue destruction is primarily due to this cell type
CD8+ killer T cells
Chemical mediators of fever
IL-1

TNF-alpha
2 examples of Stabile cells
Hepatocytes

Proximal convuluted tubule cells
What does PDGF promote?
Angiogenesis

Fibrosis
What does FGF promote
Angiogenesis

Fibrosis
What are TGF-beta's fxns?
inhibits growth of epithelial cells and inflammation

promotes Fibrosis
Components of Basement Membrane
Collagen
Heparin Sulfate
Proteoglycans
Laminin

*CHP-L*
Interstitial Matrix components
**CHEF-P**

Collagen
Hyaluronin acid
Elastin
Fibronectin
Proteoglycans
1st collagen type deposited in wound healing
type III
Vascular endothelial cells that do not have basement membranes separating them from underlying stroma
Bone Marrow
Lymphoid organs
Liver
What is Fibronectin synthesized by?
Hepatocytes (liver)

*as opposed to Endothelium**
Initial substance in the repair of an injury
Granulation tissue
Drug that drastically impairs would healing due to inhibition of collagen synthesis
Corticosteroids
Most common cause of Dehiscence
hypoxia with ulceration