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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Pathology
study of disease
Etiology
cause(s) of disease
Idiopathic Disease
disease of unknown etiology
Iatrogenic Disease
when a health professional inadvertently causes a disease
Lesions
the lumps/bumps/things
Signs
something you SEE (redness, vomiting)
Symptoms
something patient FEELS (nauseated)
Diagnosis
name of disease
Prognosis
probable outcome (excellent, good, poor, etc.)
Clinical/Gross
what something looks like; you are there looking at it
Microscopic Examination/Histopathology
what it looks like under the microscope
Necrosis
cell death; dead cells surrounded by living cells that triggers inflammation
Apoptosis
a programmed cell death; signal that tells call to commit suicide; cell is gotten rid of without inflammation; cytoplasmic contents is not released, but consumed by phagocytosis
Ischemia
reduced blood flow to an area, but not to a necrotic point
Ischemic Necrosis
if blood flow is reduced to the point of cell death; irreversible
Liquefactive Necrosis
necrotic area that literally liquifies; often pool of pus; ex. ischemic necrosis of brain tissue
Coagulative Necrosis
tissues die, but can still see the outline of what was there previously; often seen in the heart myocardium, lungs, and kidneys
Abscess
pool of pus; ex. of liquefactive necrosis
Caseous Necrosis
cottage cheese texture; if you have a TB infection of tissue
Gangrene Necrosis
reduce blood supply so much that area undergoes necrosis and then a secondary bacterial infection of the dead tissue causes the gangrene
Fat Necrosis
fairly rare; one ex. is pancreatic fat necrosis which is when pancreatic fat/enzymes leak out
Dystrophic Calcification
get a calcified bone-like material usually in injured tissue; some people more prone, but don't know cause; may be seen in heart valves as well; irreversible
Metaplasia
irritated cells turn into different kinds of cells; reversible if irritant is removed; can progress into dysplasia and then cancer (both irreversible)
Atrophy
reduced blood flow causes reduced cell size
Hypertrophy
cell is working harder, so it enlarges
Hyperplasia
increased number of cells
Fatty Change
globs of fat in cytoplasm of cell
Hydropic
excess water can lead to necrosis
Pyknosis
darkened nucleus
Inflammation Naming
add -itis and specify whether acute or chronic
Inflammation
the body's attempt to remove an irritant; a reaction to all forms of injury; usually beneficial, but can be destructive if it becomes chronic; scar tissue is a result of inflammation
Acute Inflammation
starts rapidly and lasts 6-24 hours; body is trying to get rid of or neutralize infection
Signs and Symptoms of Acute Inflammation
redness, heat, pain without palpation, swelling, and loss of function
Extravasation
fluid outpouring
Steps of White Cell Movement
margination, rolling, adhesion (arrest), and transmigration
Chemotaxis
cell moves toward irritant
Phagocytosis
cell eats up irritant
Edema
accumulation of fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces
Inflammatory Edema
accumulation of fluids because of the inflammatory response which produces swelling