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398 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Mobitz I
1. Usually due to inferior MI. Rarely goes into 3rd degree block.
2. Txt w/ Atropine or Isoproterenol.
Mobitz II
3. BBB association. Often goes to 3rd degree AV block. Usually due to anterior MI.
P wave
4. Atrial depol.
a wave
5. LA contraction
T wave
6. Vetricular repol.
Wavy fibers
7. Eosinophilic bands of necrotic myocytes. Early sign of MI.
Janeway’s lesions
8. Acute bacterial endocarditis.
9. Nontender, erythematous lesions of palms & soles.
Osler’s nodes
10. Subacute bacterial endocarditis.
11. Tender lesions of fingers & toes.
Thiamine defcy
12. Wet Beri Beri heart. Dilated (congested) cardiomyopathy due to chronic alcohol consumption
13. Dyr Beri Beri = peripheral neuropathy
14. Wernicke-Korsakoff = ataxia; confusion; confabulation; memory loss
Fibrinous Pericarditis
15. Associated w/ MI: Dressler’s
Serous Pericarditis
16. Associated w/ nonbacterial; viral (Coxsackie) infection; immunologic reaction.
Friction Rub
17. Pericarditis association
Hemorrhagic Pericarditis
18. Associated w/ TB or neoplasm
Restrictive Cardiomyopathy
19. Aka infiltrative cardiomyopathy that stiffens the heart
20. Due to amyloidosis in the elderly
21. Due to , also see schaumann & asteroid bodies in young (<25 yoa).
PML’s infectious agent
22. JC Virus (Papovavirus = dsDNA, naked icosahedral capsid)
23. ­Pc (more seeps out)
24. ¯pc (less reabsorbed)
25. ­ permeability
26. Block lymphatic drainage
Adult Polycystic Kidney Disease
27. Commonly see liver cysts & Berry aneurysms along w/ kidney cysts. Hematuria & HTN also present.
28. 3 cysts in ea. Kidney w/ + family history confirms diagnosis
Malignant HTN & Kidneys
29. Petehial hemorrhages are seen on kidney surfaces = Flea-Bitten surface = young black men
Nephritic signs
30. Hematuria; RBC casts; HTN
Nephrotic signs
31. Proteinuria; Hypoalbuminemia; Edema
Podocyte Effacement seen w/
32. Minimal Change (Lipoid nephrosis) disease
ASO seen in
33. Acute post-streptococcal GN (due to bHGASrtep)
34. Anti streptolysin O
Crescentic GN
35. Rapidly progressive GN – nephritic syndrome
36. Associated w/ multi system disease or post-strep/post infectious glomerular nephritis
Hereditary Nephritis
37. Alport’s syndrome. X linked
38. Renal disease w/ deafness & ocualr abnormalities
Membranoproliferative GN
39. Can be secondary to complement deficiency; chronic infections; CLL
40. See tram tracking
TypeI Membrano Proliferative GN deposits
41. C3 & IgG deposits
TypeII Membrano Proliferative GN deposits
42. Only C3 deposits
43. Aka Dense deposit disease
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis deposits
44. IgM & C3 deposits
Cold agglutinins
45. Seen in atypical pneumonia
46. It is IgM Ab with specificity for I Ag on adult RBCs
47. TB in the lymph nodes
Aspirin-Asthma Triad
48. Nasal polyps – Rhinitis – bronchoconstriction
Ferruginous bodies
49. Hemosiderin (pigment w/ Fe3-) covered macrophages that have been pahgocytised
Pancoast’s tumor causes
50. Ulnar nerve pain & Horner’s syndrome
Fatty degeneration
51. Made up primarily of triglycerides
52. Most commonly due to alcoholism which commonly leads to hepatic cirrhosis
53. Associated w/ CCl4-
Cloudy swelling
54. Failure of cellular Na pump
55. Seen in Fatty degeneration of the liver and in Hydropic (Vacuolar) degeneration of the liver
Hydropic degeneration
56. Severe form of cloudy swelling
57. Seen with hypokalemia induced by vomitting/diarrhea
Liquefaction necrosis
58. Rapid enzymatic break down of lipids
59. Seen commonly in Brain & Spinal cord (CNS) injuries
60. Seen in suppurative infections = pus formation
Coagulation necrosis
61. Result of sudden ischemia
62. Seen in organs w/ end arteries limited collateral circulation) = heart, lung, kidney, spleen
Caseation necrosis
63. Combination of both coagulation & liquefaction necrosis
64. Seen w/ M. tuberculosis & Histoplasma capsulatum infection
Fibrinoid necrosis
65. Seen in the walls of small arteries
66. Associated w/ malignant hypertension, polyarteritis nodosa, immune mediated vasculitis
Fat necrosis
67. Result of lipase actions liberated from pancreatic enzymes
68. Seen w/ Acute pancreatitis = saponification results
69. Blood in sputum
Pulmonary embolism
70. Most commonly thrombus from lower extremity vein
71. From a vein of lower extremities, of a pregnant uterus, in Congestive heart failure, bed ridden pt,
72. As a complicaiton in a pt w/ Pancreatic CA due to ­d blood coagulability
Saddle embolus
73. Embolus lodged in bifurcation of pulmonary trunks
74. ­­ RV strain = RV & RA dilate = Acute cor Pulmonale
Paradoxical embolism
75. Right to Left shunt allows a venous embolism to enter arterial circulation
76. Patent ovale foramen or Atrial septal defect
Tuberculoid granuloma
77. Collection of macrophages w/o caseation
78. Seen w/ Sarcoidosis (non-caseating); Syphilis; Brucellosis and Leprotic infections
79. Spreading infection due to streptococcus
80. Prostate Specific Antigen = elevated in prostatic CA
81. In cases of metastatic carcinoid, txt w/ Methysergide (5HT antagonist)
­ aFeto Protein
82. Hepatocarcinoma
83. Neural tube defects
84. Carcinoembryonic Antigen = elevated in Colon CA
Chromosome 13
85. Retinoblastoma
Chromosome 11p
86. Wilms tumor of the kidney
Vinyl Chloride
87. Associated w/ Angiosarcoma of the liver
Agent Orange
88. Contains dioxin
89. Implicated as a cause of Hodgkin;s disease, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma & soft tissue sarcomas
Parasites & CA
90. Schistosoma haematobium = Urinary bladder CA
91. S. mansoni = Colon CA
92. Aspergillus flavus = potent hepatocarcinogen
93. Alkaptonuria
94. Error in tyrosine metabolism due to Homogentisic acid (oxidizes tyrosine)
95. Involving intervertebral disks = Ankylosing Spondilitis = Poker spine
96. See dark urine; dark coloration of sclera, tendons, cartilage
Lead poisoning
97. Acid fast inclusion bodies
98. ­ urinary coproprophyrin
99. Anemia: microcytic/ hypochromic
100. Stippling of the basophils
101. Gingival line & lead line in bones: x-ray
102. Mental retardation
Heroin OD, clinically
103. Massive pulmonary edema w/ frothy fluid from the nostrils
Fetal alcohol syndrome
104. Small head, small eyes, funnel chest, ASD, mental deficiency, and hirsutism
Atypical mycobacterium
105. M. kanasasii & M. avium intracellulare
Cold abscesses
106. Liquefied TB lesions similar to pyogenic abscesses but lacking acute inflammation
Actinomyces isrealli
107. Farmers infection
108. Lumpy jaw (from chewing grain) & PID (IUD), but most common is due to saprophyticus
Congenital Syphilis
109. Saddle nose, Saber shin, Hutchinson’s teeth, nerve deafness, interstitial keratitis
Warthin-Finkeledy cells
110. Reticuloendothelial giant cells on tonsils, lymph nodes, spleen
111. Seen with Rubeola (measles) due to paramyxovirus
Diphyllobothrium latum
112. Tapeworm infection causing megaloblastic anemia by consuming large amount of vit B12 in the host
Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis
113. a Hemolytic Streptococci (S. viridans) = usually in pt w/ pre-existing heart problem
Acute Bacterial Endocarditis
114. Staph aureus, b Hemolytic Streptococci, E. coli
115. Common among drug addicts & diabetics
Mitral Insufficiency
116. Ruptured papillary muscle
Left Anterior Descending branch
117. Branch of the Left Coronary artery
118. Highest frequency of thrombotic occlusion
119. MI = anterior wall of the LV, especially in apical part of interventricular septum
Left Circumflex branch
120. Branch of the Left Coronary artery
121. Occlusion = MI of posterior/lateral wall of the LV
Dissecting Aneurysm
122. False aneurysm: it is splitting of the media of the aorta
123. Usually accompanied w/ long history of severe hypertension, also seen w/ familial hyperlipidemia, atherosclerotic disease, Marfan’s Collagen disease
124. Zones of medial necrosis +/- slitlike cysts = Medial Cystic Necrosis of Erdheim
Cor Pulmonale
125. Right ventricular strain, associated w/ right ventricular hypertrophy
Acute Cor Pulmonale
126. Sudden right ventricular strain due to a massive pulmonary embolism
127. Lobular (rather than lobar)
128. Due to Staph aureus; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Klebsiella; E. coli
129. Abscess formation is common
Lobar pneumonia
130. Due to Strep. Pneumoniae infection (5% due to Klebsiella)
131. Red Hepatization: days 1-3 of the pneumonia
132. Gray Hepatization: days 3-8 of untreated pneumonia
133. Complicaitons: pleural effusion; atelectasia; fibrinous pleuritis; empyema; fibrinous pericarditis; otitis media
134. Permanent dilatation of the bronchi – predisposed by chronic sinusitis and post nasal drip
135. Supparation associated
136. Lower lobe > than upper lobe involvement
Cold Agglutinins
137. Found w/ Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Panlobular Emphysema
138. a1 – antitrypsin deficiency, causing elastase ­ = ­ compliance in the lung
139. Associated w/ Emphysema = “Bleb” = outpouching - If it ruptures causes Pneumothorax
Farmer’s Lung
140. Due to Micropolyspora faeni (thermophilic actinomycetes)
141. Due to M. vulgaris (actinomycetes)
142. Inhalation of sugar cane dust
Silo-Filler’s Lung
143. Due to Nitrogen dioxide from nitrates in corn
G6PDH Deficiency
144. Sex-linked chronic hemolytic anemia w/o challenge or after eating fava beans
145. Heinz Bodies appear in RBCs
HbF ­­
146. Sickle Cell Anemia
Multiple Myeloma
147. Lytic lesions of flat bones (“salt & pepper lesions”) = vertebrae, ribs, skull; Hypercalcemia; Bence-Jones protein casts
Hodgkin’s Disease
148. Malignant neoplasm of the lymph nodes causing pruritis; fever = looks like an acute infection
149. Reed Sternberg cells
Polyarteritis Nodosa
150. Immune complex disease of Ag-Ab complexes on blood vessel wall
151. Half of the immune complexes have Hepatitis B Ag
152. Can see fever; abd.pain; ¯ wt; HTN; muscle aches
153. Celiac disease due to a gluten-induced enteropathy = small intestine villi are blunted
154. High titers of anti-gliadin Abs & ­ IgA levels
Regional Enteritis
155. Crohn’s Disease
156. Association w/ Arthritis; Uveitis; Erythema Nodosum
Whipple’s Disease
157. Intestinal Lipodystrophy = malabsorption syndrome
Kulchitsky cells
158. Neural cest cells from which carcinoids arise = of the Bronchi; GIT; Pancreas
Ulcerative Colitis
159. Inflammatory disease of the colon w/ ­ colon CA incidence
160. Crypt abscess in the crypts of Lieberkuhn
161. Pseudopolyps when ulcers are deep
162. Not transmural involvement
Vaginal Adenosis
163. Women exposed to DES (Diethylstilbesterol) in utero before the 18th week of pregnancy
164. Some develop clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina & cervix
Scirrhous Carcinoma
165. Infiltrating Duct Carcinoma w/ fibrosis – most common type of breast carcinoma
Hofbauer Cells
166. Lipid laden macrophages seen in villi of Erythroblastosis Fetalis
Retinopathy of Prematurity
167. Retrolental Fibroplasia = cause of bindness in premies due to high O2 concentrations
IgA deficiency
168. Pt has recurrent infections & diarrhea w/ ­ respiratory tract allergy & autoimmune diseases
169. If given blood w/ IgA = develop severe, fatal anaphylaxis reaction
Priamry Sjorgen’s
170. Dry eyes & dry mouth, arthritis. ­ risk for B cell lymphoma. HLA-DR3 frequent. Autoimmune disease.
Secondary Sjorgen’s
171. Rheumatoid arthritis, SLE, or systemic sclerosis association
172. RA association shows HLA-DR4
173. Myocardium. LDH1 higher than LDH2 = Myocardial Infarction
174. Lung tissue
175. Liver cells
176. Severe Vit A deficiency. See Bitot’s spots in the eyes = gray plaques = thickened, keratinized ET
Metabisfite Test
177. Suspending RBCs in a low O2 content solution
178. Can detect Hemoglobin S, which sickles in low O2
Microangiopathic Hemolytic Anemia
179. Can be due to Hemolyitc Uremic Syndrome & Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP)
180. See Helmet cells
Wright’s stain
181. Stain for Burkitt’s lymphoma
182. Due to EBV infeciton
183. If Mono is treated w/ Ampicillin, thinking that it is a strep pharyngitis, a rash will occur.
184. Burkitt’s lymphoma = c-myc oncogene overexpression
185. CML = c-abl/bcr gene formation = Philadelphia translocation
Langerhan Cell Histiocytosis
186. Letter Siwe syndrome; Hand Schuller Christian Disease; Eosinophilic Granuloma
187. Birbeck granules are present = tennis racket shape
Myeloid Metaplasia
188. Alkaline phosphatase ­/normal compare to CML = low to absent
189. Anemia; splenomegaly; platelets > 1 million = extensive extra-medullary hematopoiesis
Multiple Myeloma
190. Weakness; wt. loss; recurrent infection; proteinuria; anemia; ­ proliferation of plasma cells in BM = plasma cell dx
191. Serum M protein spike – most often of IgG or IgA
192. Hypercalcemia (­ bone destruction)
193. NH Lymphoma = bcl2 proto-oncogene overexpression seen w/ Small Cleaved Cell (Follicualr) Lymphoma
Focal Segmental GN exs
194. IgA Focal GN = Berger’s disease; SLE; PAN; Schonlein-Henoch purpura (anaphylactoid purpura)
Nephrotic Syndrome exs
195. Focal (Segmental) GN; Membranous GN; Lipoid (Minimal Change) GN; Membranoproliferative GN; Hep B; Syphilis; Penicillamine
Schistosoma Haematobium
196. Infection is assocaited w/ Squamous cell CA of the Bladder (most common Bladder CA is transitional cell type)
197. Associated w/ portal HTN due to intrahepatic obstruction
Penicillin Resistant PID
198. PID is usually due to N. Gonorrhoeae, but if unresponsive to penicillin think of Bacteroides species
Duret Hemorrhages
199. Severe ­ in ICP w/ downward diplacement of cerebellar tonsils into Foramen Magnum causing a compression on the brainstem w/ hemorrhaging into the pons & midbrain
200. Nearly always associated w/ death due to damage to the vital centers in these areas
Hypertensive Hemorrhage
201. Predilection for lenticulostriate arteries = putamen & internal capsule hemorrhages
Cerebral Embolism from
202. MI w/ Mural Thrombi; Atrial Fib Thrombi = Marantic thrombi; L-sided Bacterial Endocarditis; Paradoxical Embolism of septal defect
203. Tabes Dorsalis = ¯ joint position sensation, ¯ pain sensation, ataxia, Argyl Robertson pupils
204. Syphilitic meningitis
205. Paretic neurosyphilis
206. Cri di Chat: mental retardation; small head; wide set eyes; low set ears; cat-like cry
Trisomy 13
207. Patau’s: small head & eyes; cleft lip & palate; many fingers
Acute Cold Agglutinaiton
208. Abs to I blood group Ag. Mediated by IgM Abs
209. Complication of EBV or Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections
Chronic Cold Agglutinaiton
210. Associated w/lymphoid neoplasms. See agglutination & hemolysis in tissue exposed to cold. IgM Abs
RBC Osmotic Fragility
211. Hereditary Spherocytosis
Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas
212. Small Lymphocytic: low grade B cell lymphoma of the elderly. Related to CLL.
213. Small Cleaved cell (Follicualr): low grade B cell lymphoma of the elderly. T(14;18) bcl-2 oncogene
214. Large Cell
215. Lymphoblastic: high grade T cell lymphoma of kids progressing to T-ALL
216. Small Non Cleaved = Burkitt’s: high grade B cell lymphoma. EBV infection. Starry sky histo appearance. T(8;14) c-myc proto-oncogene. Related to B-ALL
Singer’s Nodules
217. Benign laryngeal polyps associated w/ smoking & overuse of the voice
Paraseptal emphysema
218. Associated w/ blebs (large subpleural bullae) that can rupture and cause pneumothorax
Superior Vena Cava Syndrome
219. Obstructed due to bronchogenic carcinoma. Causing swollen face & cyanosis.
Betel nuts
220. Associated to oral cancer.
Fundal (Type A) Gastritis
221. Antibodies to parietal cells; pernicious anemia; autoimmune diseases
Antral (Type B) Gastritis
222. Associated w/ Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori infection. 90% of duodenal ulcer
Primary Biliary Cirrhosis
223. Autoimmune origin; middle aged women; anti-mitochondrial Abs
224. Jaundice; itching; hypercholesterolemia (can see cutaneous xanthomas)
Acute Pancreatitis
225. ­ pancreatic enzymes = fat necrosis; sapponification = hypocalcemia; ­ serum amylase
226. Severe epigastric ab pain; prostration; radiation to the back
Radiating Back Pain
227. Chronic pancreatitis
Complete Hydatidiform Mole
228. No embryo. Paternal derivation only. 46XX
Partial Hydatidiform Mole
229. Embryo. 2 or more sprems fertilized 1 ovum: triploidy/tetraploidy occurs
Cold Nodules
230. Hypoplastic Goiter nodules that do not take up radio active iodine. [Opposite: hot & do take up iodine]
231. Mammotrophs = Prolactin
232. Somatotrophs = GH
233. Thyrotrophs = TSH
234. Gonadotrophs = LH
235. Corticotrophs = ACTH & FSH
Lacunar Strokes
236. Small/focal aa occlusions. Purely motor or sensory.
237. Sensory: lesion of thalamus
238. Motor: lesion of internal capsule
CSF of Bacterial Meningitis
239. ¯ Glucose; ­ Protein; ­ Neutrophils; ­ Pressure
CSF of Viral Meningitis
240. Normal Glucose; +/-­ Protein; ­ Lymphocytes
Marble Bone Disease
241. Osteoporosis: Albers-Schonberd Disease = inspite of ­d bone density, many fractures = ¯ osteoclasts
242. Involved in Chemotaxis (for Neutrophils)
243. Involved in Opsonization (& IgG)
244. C3a & C5a (mediate Histamine release from Basophils & Mast cells)
Vasoactive Mediators
245. Vasoconstriction: TxA2; LTC4; LTD4; LTE4; PAF
246. Vasodilation: PGI2; PGD2; PGE2; PGF2a; Bradykinin; PAF
247. ­d Vascular Permeability: Hist.; 5HT; PGD2; PGE2; PGF2a; LTC4; LTD4; LTE4; Bradykinin; PAF
Platelet Aggregation
248. ADP; Thrombin; TxA2; collagen; Epinephrine; PAF
Platelet Antagonist
249. Prostacyclin (PGI2)
Intrinsic Pathway
250. F XII (Hagman): APTT
Extrinsic Pathway
251. F VII: PT
Lines of Zahn
252. Aterial thrombi = pale red colored (dark red is venous thrombi)
Currant Jelly appearance
253. Post mortem clots
Emigration: Chemotaxis
254. Margination
255. Pavementing
256. Adhesion
257. Chemotaxis
258. Phagocytosis
259. Intracellular microbial killing
260. Specific gravity < 1.012 – low protein
261. Specific gravity > 1.020 – high protein
262. Lysosomal storage disease a L Iduronidase – Heparan/Dermatan Sulfate accumulation
263. Deficiency of Galactose 1 Phosphate Uridyl Transferase. ­ Galactose 1 Phosphate
264. Deficiency: Phenylalanine Hydroxylase. ­ Phenyalanine & degradation products
265. Mousy body odor
Autosomal Dominant Diseases
266. Adult Poly Cystic Kidney Disease
267. Familial Hypercholestrolemia Disease
268. Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telengectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu)
269. Hereditary Spherocytosis
270. Huntington’s Disease (chromosome 4p)
271. Marfan’s Syndrome
272. Neurofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen’s)
273. Tuberous Sclerosis
274. Von Hippel Lindau Disease
Autosomal Recessive Diseases
275. Tay-Sachs
276. Gaucher’s
277. Niemann-Pick
278. Hurler’s
279. Von Gierke’s
280. Pompe’s
281. Cori’s
282. McArdle’s
283. Galactosemia
284. PKU
285. Alcaptonuria
X Linked Recessive Diseases
286. Hunter’s Syndrome (L-Iduronosulfate Sulfatase deficincy, ­ Heparan/Dermatan Sulfate)
287. Fabry’s Disease (a Galactosidase A deficiency, ­ Ceremide Trihexoside)
288. Classic Hemophilia A (Factor VIII deficiency, F8 Gene on X chromosome is bad, ­ Ceremide Trihexoside)
289. Lisch-Nyhan Syndrome (HGPRT deficiency, ­ Uric acid)
290. G6Phosphatase deficiency (G6PDH deficiency, ­ Ceremide trihexoside)
291. Duchenne’s Muscular Dystrophy (Dystrophin deficinecy, ­ Ceremide Trihexoside)
Hypersensitivity Reactions
292. Type I (Anaphylactic): IgE mediated. Exs: Hay Fever; Allergic asthma; Hives
293. Type II (Cytotoxic): Warm Ab autoimmune hemolytic anemia; hemolytic transfusion reactions; Erythroblastosis Fetalis; Grave’s Disease; Goodpastures
294. Type III (Immune Complex): Insoluble complement bound aggregates of Ag-Ab complexes. Exs: Serum sickness; Arthus Reaction; Polyarteritis Nodosa; SLE; Immune Complex Mediated Glomerular Disease
295. Type IV (Delayed = Cell mediated immunity): Delayed hypersensitivity. Involves memory cells. Exs: Tuberculin reaction; Contact dermatitis; Tumor cell killing; Virally infected cell killing
Transplant Rejections
296. Hyperacute Rejection = occurs w/in minutes of transplant. Ab mediated.
297. Acute Rejection = occurs w/in days to months of transplant. Lymphocytes & macrophages. Only rejection type that can be treated w/ therapy.
298. Chronic Rejection = occurs months to years of transplant. Ab mediates vascular damage.
Blood Metastasis
299. Sarcoma, exception – renal cell CA: early venous invasion
Lymph Metastasis
300. Carcinoma, exception – renal cell CA: early venous invasion
301. Seen w/ Aspergillus. ­ risk for Hepatocellular CA
Cleft Lip
302. Incomplete fusion of maxillary prominence w/ median nasal prominence
Cleft Palate
303. Incomplete fusion of lateral palatine process w/ each other & median nasal prominence & medial palatine prominence
416. Pituitary tumor - usually calcified
Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
Inolved in Vision relay
Medial Geniculate Body
Involved in Hearing relay
Lung Development
Glandular: 5-17 fetal weeks
Canalicular 13-25 fetal weeks
Terminal Sac 24 weeks to birth
Alveolar period birth-8yoa
Heart’s 1st Beat
21-22 days
Mouth à Common Bile Duct - supplied by Celiac Artery
Duodenum, just below Common Bile Duct à Splenic flexure of the Colon supplied by Superior Mesenteric artery
Splenic Flexure à Butt crack à supplied by Inferior Mesenteric Artery
Hypnagogic Hallucinaitons
Type I Error
a: “Convicting the innocent” – accepting experimental hypothesis/rejecting null hypothesis
Subdural Hematoma
Ruptured cerebral bridging veins
Epidural Hematoma
Ruptured middle meningeal artery “intervals of lucidness”, 2ry to Temporal bone fracture
Type II Error
b: “Setting the guilty free” – fail to reject the null hypotesis when it was false
1 - b
Positive Predictive Value
Negative Predictive Value
Odds Ratio
Disorder of thought content
Loose Association
Skip from topic to topic
5 Stages of Death
Denial – Anger – Bargaining – Depression – Acceptance
1st Branchial Arch
Meckel’s cartillage – gives rise to incus/malleus bones of ear
2nd Branchial Arch
Reichert’s cartillage – gives rise to stapes bone of ear
Median nerve lesion
No pronation
Radial nerve lesion
Wrist drop – seen w/ humerus fracture
Common peroneal lesion
Foot drop. No dorsiflexion or eversion of the foot
Diract inguinal hernia
Goes through superficial inguinal ring.
Medial to inferior epigastric artery
Seen in older men
Indirect inguinal hernia
Goes through deep & superficial inguinal ring
Lateral to inferior epigastric artery
Seen in young boys – processus vaginalis did not close
@ Diaphragm T8, T10, T12
T8 = Inferior vena cava
T10 = Esophagus/ Vagus
T12 = Aorta/ Thoracic duct/ Azygous vein
Wild flailing of 1 arm. Lesion of the sub thalamic nucleus
O Linked Oligosaccharide
In the Golgi
N Linked Oligosaccharide
In the RER
MLF Syndrome
Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia: medial rectus palsy on lateral gaze; Nystagmus on abducting eye.
Seen w/ MS
ADA Deficiency
Raphe Nucleus
Initiation of sleep via 5HT predominance
b waves
Alert; Awake; Active mind – also seen in REM, therefore we say “paradoxical sleep”
Irreversible Glycolysis Enzymes
PhosphoFructo Kinase = Rate Limiting Step
Pyruvate Kinase
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase
Irreversible Gluconeogenesis Enzymes
PyruvateCarboxy Kinase
Fructose 1,6 BiPhosphatase
Glucose 6 Phosphatase
**muscle dose not take part in Gluconeogenesis, only takes place in the liver, kidney & GI epithelium
Diarrhea, Dermatitis, Dementia
Niacin Deficiency (Vit B3 deficiency)
Hartnup’s Disease
Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome
INH use
Needed as co-factor for Pyruvate DH complex & a Ketoglutarate DH complex
Esterification of cholesterol: lecithin cholesterol acetyltransferase
Lecithin = Phosphatidylcholine, therefore phosphotidylcholine acetyltransferase
HMGCoA Reductase
Rate limiting step in cholesterol synthesis
Changes HMGCoA à Mevalonate
(-) by Lovastatin
Ketogenic amino acids
Leucine & Lysine
Glucogenic amino acids
Methionine, Threonine, Valine, Arginine, Histadine
Keto & Gluco amino acids
Phenylalanine, Trytophan, Isoleucine
Carnitine Shuttle
Feeds FA into the mitochondria for their consumption
Cori Cycle
Keeps muscles working anaerobically.
Transfers lactate to the liver to make glucose which is sent back into the muscles for energy use
(-) Na+ Pump (ATPase)
Ouabain [(-) K+ pump]
Vanadate [(-) phosphorylation]
Digoxin [­ heart contractility]
TCA Cycle Products
“Citric Acid Is Krebs Starting Substrate For Mitochondrial Oxidation”
Citrate à Aconitate à Isocitrate à a Ketoglutarate à Succinyl à Succinate à Fumarate à Malate àOAA
Color vision. Contain Iodopsin = Red-Blue-Green specific pigment. For acuity.
Contain Rhodopsin pigment. High sensitivity. Concentrated in the fovea. Night vision.
Seen @ 3rd week: Ecto, Meso & Endo
@ 2nd week: forms the primitive streak, from which Meso & Endo come from. Directly gives rise to Ecto.
Sydenham’s Chorea
Post streptococcal infection. Necrotizing arteritis of the caudate, putamen, thalamus
(+) Frei Test
Chlamydia trachomatis types L1, L2, L3 = Lymphogranuloma venereum
Sabouraud’s Agar
Culture for all Fungi ie…Culture Cryptococcus neofromans which is found in pigeon droppings
FMR1 Gene Defect
Fragile X Syndrome: macro-orchidism; long face; large jaw; large everted ears; autism, mental retardation
Barr Body
Present in Kleinfelters: Male: XXY
Not present in Turner’s: Female: XO
Aortic Insufficiency Signs
Traube Sign = Pistol shot sound over the femoral vessels
Corrigan pulse = water hammer pulse over coratid artery = aortic regurgitation
Scleroderma :”CREST”
Calcinosis; Raynauds; Esophageal; Sclerodactyl; Telangiectasis
Sporadic: bad T4 phosphorylation or developmental failure of thyroid formation
Endemic: no Iodine in diet: protruding belly & belly button
Hemochromatosis Triad
Micronodular pigment cirrhosis; Bronze Diabetes; Skin pigmentation = due to ­ Fe3+ deposition