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84 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Most blood cells are made where?
the bone marrow
Neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes are known as ________.
leukocytes
Megakaryocytes fragment to form ________.
platelets
All bone marrow derived cells are descended from a _____ cell.
stem
The hormone made by the kidney that boosts red blood cell production is ___________.
erythopoietin
True or false: Blood cells stop dividing when they reach maturity.
true
_________ is the fluid portion of the blood containing water, proteins, and nutrients.
plasma
Essentially, what is serum?
the plasma minus most clotting proteins
What are the functions of the plasma?
1) maintain homeostasis
2) transport nutrients and electrolytes
3) carry waste products for excretion
Red blood cells are also known as ___________ and their main function is to carry ______ and _______.
erythrocytes, oxygen, CO2
___________ refers to the fraction of blood volume occupied by red cells.
hematocrit
What is the name of the oxygen carrying molecule found in red blood cells.
hemoglobin
Which three nutrients are required for red cell production?
iron, vitamin B-12, and folic acid
White blood cells are also known as _________ and their main function is to __________.
leukocytes, fight infection
The white blood cell that is a phagocyte and eats bacteria is a _________.
neutrophil
The white blood cell that makes antibodies and kills foreign cells is the _________.
lymphocyte
True or false: Red cells, neutrophils, and megakaryocytes each derive from different stem cells.
false
What is the main function of the T-lymphocyte?
regulation of the immune system
What is the main function of the B-lymphocyte?
antibody production
A B-cell will differentiate into a ________ cell when stimulated to make antibodies.
plasma cell
What are the functions of of monocytes/macrophages?
1) phagocytosis 2) digests foreign molecules 3) produces hormones (cytokines)
True or false: Macrophages are found both circulating in the blood and in tissues.
false
The biggest lymphoid organ in the body is the ________.
spleen
When the genetic rearrangements in lymphocytes needed to keep up with immune functions go awry, it can give rise to _______________.
lymphoid cancers
The reduction in total circulating red cell mass is known as ________.
anemia
Name the signs and symptoms of anemia.
fatigue, dyspnea, chest pain, tachycardia, and pallor
True or false: In general, anemia that develops slowly produces more severe symptoms.
false
What are the two general causes of anemia?
1) decreased red cell production 2) rapid red cell destruction
Larger than normal red cells are classified as _________ whereas smaller than normal red cells are classified as _________.
macrocytic, microcytic
Anemia caused by a decreased number of stem cells is called ____________.
aplastic anemia
True or false: In most cases, a cause for aplastic anemia can't be found.
true
Anemia of chronic disease is more accurately called anemia of _____________.
inflammation
What is the most common cause of anemia?
iron deficiency
True or false: Finding and correcting a source of bleeding is one way to treat anemia.
true
Pernicious anemia occurs when there is decreased production of _________ which is needed to absorb _________.
intrinsic factor, vitamin B-12
Pernicious anemia is ___________ because the red blood cells have abnormal/delayed maturation.
megaloblastic
Which nutrient is needed for DNA synthesis by red cells?
folic acid
An inherited disorder of hemoglobin production is known as ________.
thalassemia
What are some general features of hemolytic anemia?
1) increased rate of red cell production 2) increased numbers of red cell precursors in marrow and 3) increased number of reticulocytes
True or false: High bilirubin levels in blood is a symptom of hemolytic anemia.
true
True or false: The gene for sickle cell anemia is rarely inherited.
false
The structural abnormality of hemoglobin seen in sick cell anemia leads to a _________ of hemoglobin.
polymerization
True or false: Sickle shaped red cells clog small blood vessels. This causes sickle cell disease.
true
A form of anemia in which the immune system produces antibodies against one's own red cells is know as _____________.
autoimmune hemolytic anemia
Which organ can be removed to treat autoimmune hemolytic anemia.
the spleen
Massive hemolysis due to ABO-mismatched blood is an example of a ________ reaction.
transfusion
A hemolytic disease of the newborn is known as ___________.
erythroblastosis fetalis
True or false: Do not transfuse an Rh positive woman with Rh negative blood.
false
When the body has too many red blood cells, this condition is called __________.
polycythemia
In polycythemia, the blood is too _____.
thick
A myeloproliferative disorder in which red cell progenitors proliferate uncontrolled is _______________.
polycythemia vera
In secondary polycythemia, too many red cells are made in response to increased production of ____________.
erythropoetin
Low levels of neutrophils is known as ___________ and is typically a result of ______ failure.
neutropenia, marrow
What type of therapy can sometimes cause neutropenia?
chemotherapy
When there is a very low neutrophil count, there is an increased risk of _______________.
bacterial infection
Increased neutrophils is known as __________.
neutrophilia
True or false: increased numbers of neutrophils seen in neutrophilia allows the body to fight infections better.
false
What can cause enlargement of the lymph nodes?
local/system infection or cancer
Enlargement of the spleen is called __________. What four things can cause it?
splenomegaly
1) infections 2) lymphomas/leukemias 3) liver disease 4) inflammatory disorders
Low platelet count is called ___________.
thrombocytopenia
Leukemias caused by proliferation of immature leukocytes are called _____________.
acute leukemias
Leukemias caused by proliferation of mature leukocytes are called ____________.
chronic leukemias
What are the four manifestations of leukemia?
1) accumulation of cells in bone marrow
2) accumulation of cells in blood
3) accumulation of cells in other tissues
4) release of toxic substances by leukemic cells
True or false: symptoms of leukemia tend to be more severe in acute than in chronic leukemia.
true
ALL stands for _______________ and its cell of origin is either __ or __ cell precursors.
acute lymphoblastic leukemia, B, T
True or false: Acute myelogenous leukemia is the most common form of cancer in children.
false
AML, also known as _________________ is a malignant proliferation of immature _______ precursors.
acute myelogenous leukemia, granulocytes
The leukemia that is a malignant proliferation of myeloid stem cells and causes an over production of platelets is called __________________.
chronic myelogenous leukemia
The cell of origin of chronic lymphocytic leukemia is the ___ cell.
B
True or false: CLL is very rare under the age of 40.
true
True or false: CLL is often curable.
false
A cancerous proliferation of lymphocytes and their precursors is called a _________.
lymphoma
______ grade non-Hodgkin lymphomas are slow growing and have mature appearing cells.
low
______ grade non-Hodgkin lymphomas are fast growing and have less mature appearing cells.
high
True or false: Low grade non-Hodgkin lymphomas are often curable whereas the high grade versions are not.
false
A lymphoma featuring large multinucleated cells (_________ cells) is known as ________ lymphoma.
Reed-Sternberg, Hodgkin
True or false: Hodgkin lymphoma is one of the more common types of cancer in young adults.
true
Hodgkin lymphoma almost always originates in the _________.
lymph nodes
What stage of Hodgkin lymphoma has disease in two or more lymph nodes on the same side of the diaphragm?
stage 2
What stage of Hodgkin lymphoma has disease that has spread outside of lymph nodes?
stage 4
True or false: most Hodgkin lymphoma patients can be cured.
true
A neoplastic disorder that originates in plasma cells is called __________.
multiple myeloma
Multiple myeloma cells secrete a protein called ____________ instead of normal __________.
monoclonal immunoglobulin, antibodies
One of the main clinical findings of multiple myeloma is ________ destruction.
bone