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39 Cards in this Set

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What are the three functions of the hemostatic system?
1. Prevent bleeding
2. Maintain fluidity of blood
3. Allow wound healing
Platelets are derived from large cells called __________, which are located in the ____________.
1. megakaryocytes
2. bone marrow
In which organ are most coagulation factors manufactured?
The liver
What is the main function of the thrombolytic system?
To dissolve clots
What type of tissue to platelets stick to in the clotting process?
Damaged blood vessels
Which protein is required for platelets to stick to damaged blood vessels?
von Willebrand factor
The activation of platelets is blocked by which drug?
aspirin
Injury to vessel and underlying tissue exposes the blood to _______.
tissue factor
What does tissue factor do when exposed to blood?
it triggers the coagulation cascade
Which vitamin is required in the synthesis of several coagulation factors?
vitamin K
What is the end product of the coagulation cascade? What does it do?
1. thrombin
2. it converts fibrinogen to fibrin
What does fibrin do?
polymerizes to form a glue-like plug coating around the platelet plug
After being stimulated by ________, plasminogen activators convert ________ to _________.
1. clot formation
2. plasminogen
3. plasmin
Which protein gradually dissolves a clot?
plasmin
How does antithrombin limit clot formation?
it inhibits thrombin and other coagulation enzymes
How does Protein C limit clot formation?
it degrades activated coagulation factors V and VIII
The disease in which antibodies destroy circulating platelets is called ________.
Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)
What are the two types of immune thrombocytopenic purpura?
1. autoimmune
2. drug-induced
Is bleeding more likely when the platelet count is high or low?
low
The disease that is caused by deficiency in either clotting factor VIII or IX is called __________.
hemophilia
The clotting factor deficiency found in hemophilia causes what?
defective fibrin formation
What type of inheritance is hemophilia an example of?
sex-linked
In von Willebrand disease, deficiency of von Willebrand factor results in what?
Platelets are less able to stick to damaged blood vessels to initiate clotting.
What type of inheritances is von Willebrand disease an example of?
dominant
Give three examples of acquired coagulation disorders?
1. liver disease
2. vitamin K deficiency
3. disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
What can cause a vitamin K deficiency?
1. poor diet
2. antibiotic use
3. malabsorption
4. biliary tract disease
Which anticoagulant drug blocks the effect of vitamin K and creates what is essentially a deficiency?
warfarin
DIC is almost always associated with ______________.
underlying life threatening disease/trauma
Both uncontrolled _________ and ___________ are seen in DIC.
1. coagulation
2. fibrinolysis
What is the best treatment for DIC?
To reverse the underlying cause of the DIC
True or false: Hypercoagulability can be inherited.
True. For example, thrombophilia is a genetic deficiency of anticoagulant proteins.
What type of thrombosis is caused by vessel injury or arteriosclerosis?
arterial thrombosis
What type of thrombosis is caused by hypercoagulable states?
venous thrombosis
What type of thrombosis is most likely to cause a heart attack?
arterial
What type of thrombosis is most likely to cause pain and swelling in tissues?
venous
Where do arterial emboli originate?
in the heart or large arteries
Where do venous emboli originate?
usually in the large veins of the legs
What is it called when a blood clot breaks loose from its site of origin and becomes lodged in the lungs?
pulmonary embolism
What three factors make up Virchow's triad?
1. blood vessel or endothelial injury
2. stasis of blood
3. hypercoagulability