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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the two types of cells that form blood vessels?
endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells
List the three layers of an artery, starting from the innermost layer.
intima, media, tunica adventitia
True or false: the endothelium of a blood vessel is not active in recognizing the needs for flow and repair.
false
What happens if the media layer breaks?
an aneurysm occurs
True or false: Muscular arteries are the most elastic.
true
Small muscular arteries that play a role in regulating the blood flow to different parts of the body are known as ________ vessels.
resistance
The smallest elastic arteries are the ________.
arterioles
True or false: Capillaries are not considered arteries.
true
True or false: Capillaries are mostly smooth muscle.
false
Are capillaries a low or high pressure system?
low
True or false: Damage to arteries accounts for only a smart fraction of death and disability in the US.
false
Cells of the blood and artery get involved in the damage process by trying to respond to ______________.
injury or inflammation
What common marcomolecule can cause irritation to the endothelium leading to inflammation?
lipids
What type of cell tries to "scavenge" chemicals that irritate the artery?
macrophage
What are the two critical processes that lead to artery blockages and narrowing?
1. accumulation of lipid
2. smooth muscle proliferation
Atherosclerotic blockages are also known as __________.
plaques
In the progression of blockages, the initial lesion is called the ________.
fatty streak
What are the three parts included in an advanced lesion?
1. fibrous cap of endothelium
2. atheroma
3. smooth muscle cells
True or false: there is very little genetic influence on the development of plaques
false
List the risk factors for atherosclerosis.
smoking, high blood pressure, cholesterol disorders, inactivity, diabetes mellitus, obesity, being a dude, menopause, older age, inflammatory problems
A heart attack, stroke, or death of an organ or extremity due to atherosclerosis is called a(n) ___________.
acute occlusion
A complication resulting in ischemia is called ______________.
chronic narrowing
A clot or fragment of a plaque that breaks off the main plaque is called a(n) __________.
embolism
Aneurysms are most often seen in the ______ and ________.
aorta and cerebral vessels
Which type of aneurysm is a separation of the walls of the artery?
dissecting
Inflammation of the arteries is known as ________.
arteritis
Phlebitis is the inflammation of the ______.
veins
True or false: A ruptured vein is just as serious as a ruptured artery.
false
Tortuous dilated veins are called ______________.
varicose veins
When inflammation causes thrombotic occlusion it is known as __________.
thrombophlebitis