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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Acute kidney injury is a rapid decline in ___________ that results in a loss of __________ of metabolic processes.
glomerular filtration rate, steady-state homeostasis
The accumulation of nitrogenous waste products in the blood is called __________.
The clinical syndrome of multiple organ dysfuntion due to retention of "uremic toxins" is called _____.
Underperfusion of the kidneys with otherwise stable function is known as _________ AKI.
What is the most common cause of pre-renal AKI.
volume losses (vomiting, diarrhea, diuretics)
An obstructive process that causes AKI by mechanistically blocking kidney function is ________ AKI.
True or false: urinalysis is typically abnormal in post-renal AKI.
A process resulting in AKI by directly affecting the kidney itself is known as ________ AKI.
Protein and red blood cells in the urine may be indicative of __________.
glomerular injury
Red blood cell casts may indicate ________.
Protein and possible white blood cells in the urine may indicate ____________.
interstitial disease
Proteinuria, redblood cells, renal tubule epithelial cells, and muddy brown casts may indicate ___________.
tubular injury
What drugs can cause acute interstitial nephritis?
antibiotics and NSAIDs
True or false: Glomerulonephritis is usually only associated with one disease state.
A continuum of hypoperfustion and ischemia of the kidneys is associated with what?
Acute Tubular Necrosis (ATN)
True or false: If the tubular basement membrane remains intact after ATN, normal kidney function may return.
True or false: The fact that ATN is potentially reversible distinguishes it from chronic kidney disease.
The best therapy for patients with End Stage Kidney Disease is ___________.
renal transplantation
Which two factors are the major immune barriers to successful renal transplantation?
1. ABO blood group antigens
2. HLA histocompatiblity antigen
True or false: ABO antigens are only expressed on red blood cells.
Where are HLA histocompatiblity antigens expressed?
on most cell membranes
True or false: Identical twins are ideal matches for eachother.
An attack on a transplanted organ that occurs as soon as reperfusion occurs is known as a _________ rejection.
A transplanted kidney experiencing hyper-acute rejection suffers from _________.
A rejection that occurs within the first one to two weeks of transplantation is known as a ________ rejection.
What can be used to effectively treat acute rejection?
corticosteroids and antibodies against T lymphocytes.
Acute cellular rejection is largely initiated by ________________
T lymphocytes
Cytokines released during acute cellular rejection cause ______________.
cell destruction
A type of acute rejection that is characterized by occlusion of blood vessels and collapse of glomerular capillary beds is ____________.
acute vascular rejection
What are the three main functional consequences of acute rejection?
1. fall in GFR
2. increased protein excretion
3. increase in systemic blood pressure