• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/86

Click to flip

86 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Duke's criteria for diagnosis of Infective Endocarditis (3)
1- Positive culture
2- Echo findings
3- New murmurs
What is Carcinoid Syndrome?
SCALP

Skin, Cardiac, Abdomen, Liver, Pulmonary
What is carcinoid heart disease?
Carcinoid tumors originate from neural crest cells that are capable of APUD (Amine Precursor Uptake and Decarboxylation)
What substances do carcinoid tumors produce?
1- Serotonin
2- Histamine
3- 5HIAA- serotonin metaboite
Most common infectious cause of myocarditis
Viral
Non-infectious causes of myocarditis
1- Hypersensitivity
2- Reaction to drugs
When you see lymphocytes and monocytes in interstitial, perivascular areas, think
VIRAL
When you see neutrophils, think
Bacterial
When you see eosinophils, think
Drug Hypersensitivity
When you see giant cells, think
Giant Cell myocarditis
Dilated cardiomyopathy leads to
Systolic failure- flabby HYPOcontracting heart
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy leads to
Diastolic failure
Microscope- disarray and disorganization
HCM
What is the most common cause of sudden death in athletes?
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Restrictive Cardiomyopathy is what type of dysfunction? Systolic or diastolic
Diastolic because muscle can't relax
What is endomyocardial fibrosis?
Fibrosis of the endocardium and myocardium, may be from thrombus origin, cause unknown
What is Loeffler's Endomyocarditis?
High Eosinophils cause damage
Endocardial Fibroelastosis
fibrosis and elastosis
3 examples of restrictive cardiomyopathy
1- Endomyocardial fibrosis
2- Loeffler's endomyocarditis
3- Endocardial fibroelastosis
What is cardiac myxoma?
Most common benign primary tumor of the heart, from primitive mesenchymal cells
Where is cardiac myxoma most commonly found?
Left atrium
Lepidic cells found in
Cardiac myxoma
Peculiar structures resembling glands or blood vessels are characteristic of
Cardiac Myxoma
Myxomas can cause
Valve obstruction and embolism
How do you diagnose myxomas?
Echocardiogram
Causes of concentric LVH (3)
1- Essential Hypertension (most common)
2- Aortic stenosis
3- HCM
Causes of concentric RVH (2)
1- Pulmonary HTN
2- Pumonary artery stenosis
In ventricular hypertrophy, increased AFTERLOAD causes what

increases PRELOAD causes what
Afterload- Concentric hypertrophy

Preload- Eccentric hypertrophy
Causes of eccentric hypertrophy of left ventricle (2)
1- Mitral or aortic valve regurgitation
2- Left to right shunting
Causes of eccentric hypertrophy of right ventricle (1)
Tricuspid valve or pulmonary valve regurgitation
Most common cause of IE
Strep viridans
Most common valve with IE
Mitral
Aortic and tricuspid involved with IE with IVDA (Intravenous drug abuse)
Notes
Endocarditis with regurgitation, RF and fibrotic heart disease with stenosis
Notes
IE pathology
Vegetations destroy valve leaflet and chordae tendinae
IE signs
1- Immunocomplex vasculitis- glomerulonephritis, Roth's spot
2- Microembolization- splinter hemorrhages, janeway lesions, osler's nodes, petechiae, infarctions
SLE causes LSE
Notes
Libman-Sacks endocarditis
Sterile vegetation, caused by SLE, Mitral valve involvement- regurg more common
-On both sides of valve
Acute IE caused by what bacteria
Staph aureus
Subacute IE caused by
Strep virdians
Strep bovis and IE
Colon cancer
Staph epidermidis and IE
Prosthetic valves
FROM JANE
Fever
Roth's spots
Osler's nodes
Murmur
Janeway lesions
Anemia
Nail-bed hehorrhage (splinter)
Emboli
Most common cause of myocarditis and pericarditis
Coxsackie virus
Doxorubicin and daunorubicin can cause
Myocarditis
Increased CK-MB and Troponins I and T indicate
Myocarditis
Pericardial friction rub most likely indicates
Pericarditis
Most common cause of Dilated cardiomyopathy
Myocarditis
3 Types of Cardiomyopathy
1- Dilated
2- Hypertrophic
3- Restrictive
Murmur intensity increases with DECREASED preload (Standing up, Valsalva)
HCM
Tx for HCM
Beta Blockers
How does HCM cause Sudden Death?
Ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation
3 common causes of Restrictive cardiomyopathy
1- Amyloidosis
2- Myocardial fibrosis after open-heart surgery
3- Radiation
Cardiac myxomas are most common where?
Left atrium
Metastasis is more common than primary heart tumors
Notes
Myxomas more common in what age
Adults
Rhabdomyoma common in what age
Children and infants
Most common causing organism of IE
Strep viridans
Staph- IV drug abusers
Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis
Sterile masses of fibrin, platelets, and blood elements
-No inflammation
-May embolize
-Associated with hypercoagulable states
-Seen in burns , cancer, sepsis, pulm. thrombosis, indwelling catheters of heart, leukemias, mucin-producing tumors of ovary, pancreas, GI tract
Carcinoid affects what side and features
Right side
-Valve and endocardial plaque like lesions- smooth muscle fibers, sparse collagen, and acid mucopolysaccharide rich matrix and subsequent fibrosis
Chaga's disease
T cruzi protozoa causes trypanosomiasis
Can cause dilated cardiomyopathy
Viral myocarditis
Coxsackie A and B and other enteroviruses most common
-Infants, pregnant women, and immune compromised people
-Suffer from flu-like disease without cardiac problems OR sudden death
-Most heal without sequelae
Fielder's or Giant Cell Myocarditis
UNKNOWN CAUSE!
Multinucleated giant cells, poor prognosis
Tx- cardiac transplantation
Tissue changes in myocarditis
Focal, patchy necrosis or damage
X-linked DCM linked with what mutation
Dystrophin
Cause of death of DCM
Cardiac failure
Arrhythmia/sudden death
Cause of IE with prosthetic valves or indwelling central lines
Staph epidermidis
Pathogenesis of HCM
Mutations in SARCOMERE!
Disarray and disorganization
Myocypte Hypertrophy
Interstitial and replacement fibrosis
HCM
HCM complications (4)
1) Cardiac failure
2) Thromboembolism
3) IE
4) Arrhythmia/Sudden death
Enlarged dilated heart and DYSTOLIC DYSFUNCTION is
Restrictive
Some causes/assoctiations of dystolic dysfunction
Amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, storage diseases, radiation fibrosis
Seen in infants and young children
Focal or diffuse cartilage-like thickening of the mural endocardium of cardiac chambers owing to fibrosis and elastosis
-Associated with congenital cardiac anomaly, such as aortic valve obstruction
Can lead to cardiac failure and death
Endocardial fibroelastosis
Tropical African countries
Children and young adults
Fibrosis of the endocardium and subendocardium restricts ventricular volume and compliance, diastolic filling is reduced and cardiac failure
Endomyocardial fibrosis
Lepidic cells seen in
Myxomas
Complications of myxomas
Valve obstruction/embolism
PECULIAR structures resembling poorly formed glands or vessels are characteristic of
Myxomas
Myxomas are Benign
Notes
Most common primary tumor of the heart in children and associated with tuberous sclerosis
Rhabdomyoma
What is this?
Infective endocarditis
Nonbacterial Thrombotic Endocarditis
NBTE caused by sepsis is called
Marantic Endocarditis
Mucinous tumors of ovary, pancreas, and GI tract can cause
NBTE
Yellow white fibrotic patch, mucopolysaccarhide material, think
Carcinoid Lesion
Remember the left side of the heart is protected in carcinoid due to
1) Metabolized by liver
2) Inactivated by the monoamine oxidase system in the pulmonary
Remember HCM also known as
Assymetric septal hypertrophy
Idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis
Hyptertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy
Notes