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170 Cards in this Set

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This structure contains the cardiac control center to regualte heart rate?
Medulla
This contains center that regulates breathing.
Pons & Medulla
This structure is inferior to the diencepholon?
Pons & Midbrain.
This contains the auditory center that controls refexes turning a response to a sound?
Midbrain
Bulging region on anterior portion of the brain stem?
Pons
Forms the lateral wall of the 3rd ventricle?
Thalmus
Regulates body temperature?
Hypothalmus
Corodinates balance?
Cerebellum
This is the major relay station?
Thalmus
This tructure contains the pineal gland?
Eptithalamus
This structure is involved in the regulation of sleep wake cycles?
Hypothalmus
The 2nd largest region of the brain?
Cerebrellum
This structure controls the ANS?
Hypothalmus.
What are the 3 parts of the brain stem?
Medualla
Pons
Midbrain
Where is the cerebrellum located?
Behind the brain stem.
Where is the diencephalon located?
Superior to the brain stem.
What are the 3 parts of the deincephalon?
Thalmus
Hypothalmus
epithalmus
Where is the pineal gland located?
In the epithalmus.
What is above the diencephalon?
Cerebrum
What are the 5 parts od the cerebrum?

FPOTI
Frontal
pariteal
Occiptal
temporal
Incus
What is the coroanl view?
Front section view
What is a rostral view?
Closer to the front of the head.
What is a caudal view?
Closer to the back of the head.
A sagital view will do what to the head?
Cut it into top and bottom pieces.
What are the 3 protective coverings of the brain?

DAP
Dura Mater
Arachnoid mater
Pia Mater
What layer is between the dura mater and the arachnoid mater?
Subdural space.
How does the brain get food?
Through the circle of Willis.
In which space does CSF circulate through?
Subarachnoid space.
Where is the subarachnoid space?
Between the aracnoid mater and the pia mater.
What are the names of the cavities that the CSF flows through?
Lateral ventricles
to the 3rd ventricle and into the 4th ventricle.
What is the location of the 3rd ventricle?
The 3rd ventricle between the R & L halves of the thalmus and between the ventricles of the brain.
Where is the 4th ventricle?
it is on the posterior portion of the brain stem and anterior to the cerebrellum.
What are the 3 functions of CSF?
Mechanical protection
Chemical protection
Circualtion - exchange of stuff.
Where is CSF made?
Chorioid Plexus
Where is CSF reabsorbed into the body?
Arachnoid Villi
Where is the arachnoid villi?
In the vinous sinuses - esp. the superior sagital sinus.
The ventricles in the brain are conneted by what?
passageways called foramina and aqueducts.
What makes CSF?
Choroid plexuses.
Where is the brain stem?
Between the spinal cord and the diencephalon.
What are the 3 parts of the brain stem?
Medulla
Pons
Midbrain
Where is the Medualla?
Below the Pons and above the spinal cord.
The brain stem is what to the spinal cord?
Superior to the spinal cord.
What are the 2 bulges in the medulla?
The pyramids.
Where are the pyramids?
Just below the pons.
What is in the medulla?
White matter - contains all sensory, asscending and motor decending tracts.
The pyramids cross - whats the name?
Decussation of the pyramids.
What is the deccusation of the pyramids?
This is the crosiing it explians why each side of the brain is controls movement on the opposite side of the body.
What 2 specific nuclei are in the medulla?
Cardiovascular center

Medullary rhythmic center
What does the cardiovascular center regulate?
regualts the rate and force of the heartbeat and the diamater of the blood vessels.
What does the Medullary Rhythmic center monitor?
the basic rhythm of breathing.
This other reflex is in the medulla what is it?
Refexes for coughing, vomiting, swallowing, hiccuping and sneezing.
What is located in ech pyramid?
The olive
What does the olive do?
Monitors joint and muscle positions.
What is the most inferior part of the brain?
Medulla.
PONs aka
The bridge
What does the pons do?
its the bridge that connets the brain with one another.
What does the pons control?
Helps to control breathing rate.
These 2 areas in the pons help to regualte breathing rate?
Apenustic area
Pneuromotaxic area
where is the midbrain
above the pons
What spilts the midbrain in 2
the cerebral aqueduct passes through the midbrain connecting the 3rd ventricle w the 4th ventricle.
midbrain aka
mesencephalon
Where is the cerebral penduncles?
in the midbrain
What does the cerebral penduncles do?
it condust nerve impulses from the cerebrum to the spinal cord, pons and the medulla
Back part of midbrain 2 imp. things?
Superior colliculi
Inferior colliculi
What does the superior colloculi do?
Controls the movement of the eyes, headm and neck in response to visual stimuli.
the inferior colloculi does this
relays impulses for hearing in the ear into the thalmus
The 2 colloculli togetther are responsbile for this reflex?
Starter reflex
Waht is the starter reflex?
The sudden movements of the head and body that occur when you are surprised by a loud noise
Where is the substantia nigra?
In the midbrain
What does substantia nigra do?
Controls subconscious motor activites
what color is the substantia nigra?
Black.
Loss of neruosn from the substantia nigra leads to
pARKINSON DISEASE.
What is the function of the recticular formation system?
Regualte muscle tone.
This system is responsible for maintianing concsciousness and is active during awakening form sleep?
Reticular activating system

alarm clock wake up
What activates the cerebral cortex?
RAS - reticular activating system.
where is the cerebellum?
Located behind the spianl stem
What contains 1/2 the neurons of the brain?
Cerebrellum
this seperates the cerebellum form the cerebrum?
Transverse fissure
What is the job of the cerebellum?
maintians normal muscle tone, posture and balance.
What is the priamry job of the cerebellum?
Its primary job is to evaluate how ell are movements ininited in the cerebrum are actually being carried out .
What happens in the cerebellum when movements started in the cererum are screwed up?
The cerebellum detects the discrepancies and corrects them.
What else does the cerebellum do?
Regualtes posture and balance
Cerebellum has these 2 motor functions?
Acquisition of knowledge and langauge processing.
What a sigh that the cerebellum has been damaged?
Ataxia - w/o order a person would be staggerring like hes drunk slurred speech
Wheres the diencephalon?
extends from the brain stem to the cerebrum
Name the 3 parts to the diencephalon
Thalmus
Hypothalmus
Epithalmus
Wheres the thalmus located?
Large oval structure located bilaterally on either side of the thrid ventricle.
Whats the thalmus' job
it is the main relay center for sensory impuses ascending to the cerebral cortex.
Tahlmus has also been called this
the gateway to the cerebrum
The thalmus is like a
email server.
what does the thalmus connect?
the hypothalmus to the limbic system
the quick way to find the thalmus look for the oval under the what
Under the corpus collasum
The thalmus relays all sensory signals except htis one
smell
the crebral cortec sends these siganls through what to maintian consciuosnees?
the thalmus
How do you find the hypothalmus
its above the pituitary gland
what 2 other things is the thalmus associattd with
Pian and temperature.
Hypothalmus is under the what?
The thalmus
what does the Hypothalmus connect
the brain to the pituitary
What does the hypothalmus control
Hunger, body weight, body temperature, water balance
The sleep and wake cycle is regualted by this
Hypothalmus.
Body temperature is regulated by this
Hypothalmus
H.T. is resposible for this also
homeostasis
HT =
hypothalmus
Where is the mammilary region on the HT
most psoterior part of HT
what do mammilary bodies llok like
a set of mans balls projecting out
what so the mammilary bodies do
relay statiosn for reflexes related to the sense of smell
What is the name of the structuer that connect the HT to the pituitary gland?
Infundibulum
What surrouns the Infundibulum
Median emeience.
IMp. Functions of the HP
controls ANS
Makes hormones
regulation of emotional behavior
Thirst center - regulation of eating and drinking
Most IMP. Func. of HP is
This is the bodys internal clock.
Where is the epithalmus
above the thalmus and posterior tot he thalmus
What is in the epithalmus
pineal gland
pineal gland is part of the endocirne system because it secretes this
Melatonin
What does melatonin do
Promotes sleepiness sets the body biological clock
Name one imp. nulceis in the epithalmus
the habenular nuclei
waht does the habennular do
it is the olfaction emotional response
it is the olfaction emotional response - explain it
emotional response to an odor ie the smell of somehting pulls up a memroy
what is the top part of the brain
cerebrum
how is the cerebrum spilt
right down the middle into 2 halves/hemispheres
What is the functions of the serebrum
write, speak, read, amke calcualtions, rem. the past, iamgine, paln for the future etc.
what is the top layer of the cerebrum
cerebral cortex
What are gyri?
the small folds you see in the cerebral cortex
what is a sulci
the shallow grooves of the cerebral cortex
what seperates the 2 hemispheres of the cerebrum
the longitudanl fissure runs from the front of head to the back right down the middle
what is a fissure
The deepest groove.
what does the corpus collasum do
connects the 2 hemispheres
where do you find the corpus collasum
big white thing in the center of the brain superior to the thalmus
what are the 5 lobes of the cerebrum
frontal
parietal
occipital
temporal
INSULA
what does the INSULA lobe do
involved in the sensing of taste
where is the central sulcus
sperates the frontal lobe form the pariteal lobe - on top between them
where is the lateral cerebral sulcus
seperates the frontal lobe from the temporal lobe
where are basal ganlia found
within each cerebral hemisphere
How many masses of nuclei to the basal ganlia
3 masses
the basal ganlia is an exception to this rule
ganlion means a clloection of neuronal cell bodies OUTSIDE THE CNS
BASAL Ganlia are the exception
Basal Ganglia are then?
clusters of cell bodies in the brain
basal ganlia 2 basic functions
Regulate the initiation and termination of movement
Controls the subconscious contractions of skeletal muscles.
If damgae to the Basal ganglai what happens
Uncontrollable shaking, invoulntary muscle movements, and muscualr rigidity
What disease is associated with damge to the basal ganglia
Parkinsons
Name the 3 basal ganglia
Globus pallidus
Putamen
caudate nucleus
Limbic system = the
emotional brain
the limbic system is found where
Forms a ring around the diencephalon
limbic system functions = whole range of emotions
pain, plaesure, affection, anger, and involved in smell and memory
where is the hippocampus
located inside the temporal lobe one on each side of the brain
hippocampus functions in
memory
if hippocampus is damaged what happens
you forgt recent events and cant commit anything to memroy
olfactory bulbs where
the bulblike distal end of the olfactory lobe where the olfactory nerves begin
What is the function of the olfactory bulb
Involved in the perception of odors
Whats in white matter?
it contains myelinated axons
Whats in grey matter
everything else
what is perception
the conscious awareness of a sensation
what are the 2 speech areas of the brain
Brocas area

Wernicke area
where is broca area
in the left hemisphere of the frontal lobe
what does brocas area do
transfers thought to speech
if brocas area is injured what the sign
you can still form words but you cant speak nothing nada zip
wernicke area is where
between the frontal and the occipital lobe left hemisphere
whats the function of wernicke
acitve in recognizing the spoken word, interprets the meaning of speech,
wernickes injured then what
You have word salad - you can still pseak but its all screwed up - fluent aphasia
optic nerve does this
its entirely sensory it conducts nerve impulses for vision
what does the optic nerve transmit?
transmits visual information from the retina to the brain
optic nerve connects your eyeball to the
brain
optic chisma what happens here
its the crossing branch of the optic nerve
hemispheric lateralization means
brain is symetical into left and right units - each hemisphere specializes in perfroming certian tasks
Left brain people do better at
spoken written language
More imp. for reasoning
ability to undertand sigh language
numerical and scitific methods
Right hemisphere people do better at
artsey stuff
spatial and apttern recogniton
generating mental images
hemispheric lateralization is
different form person to person
most times hemispheric lateralization is referring to
left side of brain controlling the right side of the body and vs. a vs.
frontal lobe 4 functions
Higher intelectual function
personality
verbal communication
voulntary motor control of skeltal muscle
Parietal lobe 3 F's
sensory interpretation
understanding speech
orientation
occipital lobe 3 F.s
concsious perception of visual stimlui

integration of eye focusing movement

correlation of visual experiences with previous visual expereinces
Insula lobe 2 F's
Interpretation of taste

Memory of taste