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43 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
PLURALIST DEMOCRACY
a theory of democracy that holds that citizen membership in groups is the key to political power.
POLITICAL PARTY
a group of citizens united by ideology and seeking control of government in order to promote their ideas and policies.
PARTISANSHIP
loyalty to a political clause or party.
PARTY ORGANIZATION
the official structure that conducts the political business of parties.
ELECTIONEERING
the process of getting a person elected to public office.
NOMINATING CONVENTION
formal party gathering to choose candidates.
PARTY-IN-GOVERNMENT
members of the party who have been elected to serve in government.
GOVERNING
activities directed toward controlling the distribution of political resources by providing executive/legislative leadership, enacting agendas, mobilizing support, and building coalitions.
PARTY-IN-THE-ELECTORATE
ordinary citizens who identify with the party.
PARTY IDENTIFICATION
voter affiliation with a political party.
PARTY BASE
members of a political party who consistently vote for that party's candidates.
RESPONSIBLE PARTY MODEL
party government when four conditions are met: clear choice of ideologies, candidates pledged to implement ideas, party held accountable by voters, party control over members.
PARTY MACHINE
mass-based party system in which parties provided services and resources to voters in exchange for votes.
PARTY BOSS
party leader, usually in an urban district, who exercised tight control over electioneering and patronage.
PATRONAGE
a system in which successful paty candidates reward supporters with jobs or favors.
PARTY PRIMARY
nomination of party candidates by registered party members rather than party bosses.
PARTY ERA
extended period of relative political stability in which one party tends to control both the presidency and Congress.
CRITICAL ELECTION
an election signaling the significant change in popular allegiance from one party to another.
REALIGNMENT
substantial and long-term shift in party allegiance by individuals and groups, usually resulting in a change in policy direction.
DEALIGNMENT
a trend among voters to identify themselves as independents rather than as members of major party.
PARTY ACTIVISTS
the "party faithful" ; the rank-and-file members who actually carry out the party's electioneering efforts.
SPLINTER PARTY
a third party that breaks off from one of the major political parties.
FACTION
a group of citizens united by some common passion or interest and opposed to the rights of other citizens or to the interests of the whole community.
INTEREST GROUP
an organization of individuals who share a common political goal and unite for the purpose of influencing government decisions.
LOBBYING
interest group activities aimed at persuading policymakers to support the group's positions.
FREE RIDER PROBLEM
the difficulty groups face in recruiting when potential members can gain the benefits of the group's actions whether they join or not.
COLLECTIVE GOOD
a good or service that, by its very nature, cannot be denied to anyone who wants to consume it.
SELECTIVE INCENTIVE
a benefit that is available only to group members as an inducement to get them to join.
MATERIAL BENEFIT
a selective incentive in the form of a tangiable reward.
SOLIDARY BENEFIT
a selective incentive related to the interaction and bonding among group members.
EXPRESSIVE BENEFIT
a selective incentive that derives from the opportunity to express values and beliefs and to be committed to a greater cause
ECONOMIC INTEREST GROUP
a group that organizes to influence government policy for the economic benefit of its members.
EQUAL OPPORTUNITY INTEREST GROUP
a group that organizes to promote the civil and economic rights of underrepresented or disadvantaged groups.
PUBLIC INTEREST GROUP
a group that organizes to influence government to produce collective goods or services that benefit the general public.
DIRECT LOBBYING
direct interaction with public officials for the purpose of influencing policy decisions.
INDIRECT LOBBYING
attempt to influence government policymakers by encouraging the general public to put pressure on them.
REVOLVING DOOR
the tendency of public officials, journalists, and lobbyists to move between public and private sector (media, lobbying) jobs.
POLITICAL ACTION COMMITTEE
the fundraising arm of an interest group.
ISSUE ADVOCACY ADS
advertisements that support issues or candidates without telling constituents how to vote.
SOCIAL PROTEST
public activities designed to bring attention to political causes, usually generated by those without access to conventional means of expressing their views.
GRASSROOTS LOBBYING
indirect lobbying efforts that spring from widespread public concern.
ASTROTURF LOBBYING
indirect lobbying efforts that manipulate or create public sentiment.
INTEREST GROUP ENTREPRENEUR
an effective group leader, who is likely to have organized the group and can effectively promote its interests among members and the public.