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65 Cards in this Set

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What is the scientific name for the Nodular worm?
Oesophagostomum spp.
Why is it called the Nodular worm?
Becuase it infects the nodules of the large intestine.
What do the adults look like?
White, stout, with a ventral groove, and a buccal capsule which varies in size
DH?
IH?
Cattle, sheep, and ruminants

NONE
Where is the infection site for the adults?
Large intestine
Where is the infection site for the larvae?
pylorus, nodules of rectum
What ios the infective form?
L3
Life cycle of Oesophagostomum spp.
1. Eggs passed in feces.
2. Li-L3 in Environment
3. L3 ingested
4. Larvae penetrate wall of intestine and become enclosed in nodules (cheesy)
5. L4 leave nodules in lumen and mature
Pathogenesis of Oesophagostomum spp.
1. Nodul;es may become calcified.
2. Acute inflammation
3. weakness, and emaciation
4. Feces; Dk. watery, fetid
How is Oesophagostomum spp. diagnosed?
Nodules at necropsy
Eggs; typical strongyle eggs
L3 stage observed to confirm
How is Oesophagostomum spp. treated?
Fenbendazole, Ivermectin, Dichlorus
What is the product namr for Ivermectin?
Ivomec
What is the product name for Fenbendazole?
Panacur, or Safeguard
Moving on...
What is the scientific name for Hair Worms?
Trichostrongylus axei
Give the DH, IH.
Ruminants and Equines
No IH
Where is the infection site of Trichostrongylus axei?
Abomasum in Ruminants
Stomach in Equines
Life cycle of Trichostropngylus axei
1. Eggs hatch outside host.
2. l1, l2, l3, infective by 3-14 days
3. L3 ingested by DH
4. Molt to L4 to adult; no migration
Pathogenesis of Trichostrongylus axei
Gastritis
Lg numbers; watery diarrhea, often Dk. Green (scours)
Usually pathogenic w/ existing dz, otherwise is asymptomatic.
How is this nematode diagnosed?
Culture larvae to L3
Treatment for trichostrongylus axei?
Ivermectin, Benzamidazoles
The common name for Ostertagia ostertagi?
The Brown Stomach Worm
How could these nematodes be described?
Brownish in color, Large buccal cavity, mature females have a vulvar flap
What is the DH of Ostertagia ostertagi?
Goats, sheep, cattle
Is it's infection of cattle significant?
It is the primary cattle parasite worldwide.
What is the IH for this parasite?
None
What is the prepatent period for Ostertagia ostertagi?
16-23 days
Where is the infection site?
Adults; lumen, gastric mucosal surface.
Larvae; gastric glands
Life cycle of Ostertagia ostertagi
1.Embryonated egg passed in feces.
2. L1 hatch on soil and molt 2x to L3.
{development is temperature, moisture dependent, may overwinter in soil.}
3. L3 ingested.
4. Enter gastric glands and molt to L4.
5. L5 re-enters lumen- adult
What is important concerning "Summer" Ostertagiosis?
Usually occurs in pastured young cattle in early grazing season.
Worms pass w/o passing through DA.
What is important concering Winter Ostertagiosis?
Typically occurs in Late Winter when larvae are leaving DA and becoming active.
Pathogenesis of Ostertagia ostertagi. Which stage causes more harm to host?
Larvae; Chronic abomositis in young cattle.
watery diarrhea
anemia
hypoproteinemia
emaciation
neutral pH in abomasum
"Morocco leather" appearance of abomasum.
How would you diagnose Ostertagia ostertagi?
Strongyle-like eggs
Also culture larvae
Clinical signs
Necropsy (appearance of abomasum)
Treatment od Ostertagia ostertagi?
Ivermectin
Bendimidazoles
Other ways of controlling this nematode!
Strategic deworming;
1.Cows post calving
2.Cows post weaning calves
3.Y. calves @ mid-summer & weaning.
4. Yearlings in Spring or Fall.
Rotate Pastures post deworming; dairy cows during lactation.
Haemonchus contortus is referred to as...
the Barberpole worm
Why has it acquired this common name?
The female's egg filled uterus is wrapped around it's blood filled gut giving the appearance of a barber's pole.
What does the male Haemonchus contortus look like?
It is thin and smaller than the female.
What is the DH? and IH?
Sheep. None.
Where is the infection site for this nematode?
Abomasum, for adults and larvae.
Life cycle of Haemonchus contortus.
1. Eggs passed in embryonated stage.
2. L1-L3 in soil
3. L3 ingested while grazing.
4. L3 molt in abomasum- do not migrate
5. L4 may ingest blood, molt and grow to maturity.
Pathogenesis of Haemonchus contortus.
Anemia- mostly seen in lambs
"bottle jaw"- caused by edema
High egg counts
Diagnosis of Haemonchus contortus
Eggs or culture of larvae
Pallor of mucous membranes
Evidence at necropsy
How is infection by Haemonchus contortus treated?
Ivermectin
Fenbendazole
-may be resistence with Fenbendazole
Nematodirus spp.
What are some characteristics of the adults?
-Female has spine on tail.
-Stoma armed with triangular tooth.
-Spicules; long and thin
-Cuticle of stomal region is striated and may be inflated.
What is the DH? and IH? for Nematodirus spp.?
Sheep, goats, cattle, other ruminants- including wildlife (deer, elk, moose)
No IH
Pathogenesis of Ostertagia ostertagi. Which stage causes more harm to host?
Larvae; Chronic abomositis in young cattle.
watery diarrhea
anemia
hypoproteinemia
emaciation
neutral pH in abomasum
"Morocco leather" appearance of abomasum.
How would you diagnose Ostertagia ostertagi?
Strongyle-like eggs
Also culture larvae
Clinical signs
Necropsy (appearance of abomasum)
Treatment od Ostertagia ostertagi?
Ivermectin
Bendimidazoles
Other ways of controlling this nematode!
Strategic deworming;
1.Cows post calving
2.Cows post weaning calves
3.Y. calves @ mid-summer & weaning.
4. Yearlings in Spring or Fall.
Rotate Pastures post deworming; dairy cows during lactation.
Haemonchus contortus is referred to as...
the Barberpole worm
Why has it acquired this common name?
The female's egg filled uterus is wrapped around it's blood filled gut giving the appearance of a barber's pole.
What does the male Haemonchus contortus look like?
It is thin and smaller than the female.
What is the DH? and IH?
Sheep. None.
Where is the infection site for this nematode?
Abomasum, for adults and larvae.
Life cycle of Haemonchus contortus.
1. Eggs passed in embryonated stage.
2. L1-L3 in soil
3. L3 ingested while grazing.
4. L3 molt in abomasum- do not migrate
5. L4 may ingest blood, molt and grow to maturity.
Pathogenesis of Haemonchus contortus.
Anemia- mostly seen in lambs
"bottle jaw"- caused by edema
High egg counts
Diagnosis of Haemonchus contortus
Eggs or culture of larvae
Pallor of mucous membranes
Evidence at necropsy
How is infection by Haemonchus contortus treated?
Ivermectin
Fenbendazole
-may be resistence with Fenbendazole
Nematodirus spp.
What are some characteristics of the adults?
-Female has spine on tail.
-Stoma armed with triangular tooth.
-Spicules; long and thin
-Cuticle of stomal region is striated and may be inflated.
What is the DH? and IH? for Nematodirus spp.?
Sheep, goats, cattle, other ruminants- including wildlife (deer, elk, moose)
No IH
Where is the infection site for Nematodirus spp.?
Sm intestine
Life cycle
1. Eggs passed in feces w/ only a few cells.
2. Larvae molt and develop w/in egg to L3, taking from 2-4 wks.
3. Hatched L3 survive well year round.
4. Ingested
5. Larvae molt to L4 in lumen of sm intestine, then to adult.
Pathogenesis of Nematodirus spp.
Lg. Numbers; severe and debilitating diarrhea.
N. battus; may be life threatening in sheep.
How are species of Nematodirus diagnosed?
Eggs are unique and v. large.
How is infection treated?
Fenbendazole, Albendazole