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29 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
which neurotransmitter is decreased in the basal ganglia of the midbrain?
dopamine
The cause of parkinsons is unknown but there are other iatrogenic factors such as which depleting drugs?
reserpine, phenothiazide, metoclopramide, tetrabeazine. and butyrophenomes such as droperidol, and haloperidol
people who have parkinsons disease are over the age of 50, but juvenile parkinsons is under 40 and associated with which other disease?
wilsons disease, huntingtons disease.
some people who have IPD also develop what?
dementia
what are the three cardinal signs of parkinson's disease?
involuntary tremors, akinesia, and progressive muscle rigidity.
The first symptom of parkinsons is?
tremor of fingers and thumb(pill-rolling movement)It occurs during rest and appears more when stress, cold, fatigue, or excitation.
The tremor disappear during sleep?
yes!
The tremor occurs at other parts of the body which are?
tongue, lip, jaw, chin, and closed eyelid, eventually the tremor can spread to the same side of the foot and eventually to the other side.
when doing a physical assessment one must note that the cardinal sign when doing ROM is what?
resistance to both extension and flexion.
what other signs are noted in parkinsons disease?
flexion contractures develop in the neck, trunk, elbows, knees, and hips.
other signs of parkinsons are?
stooped posture, involuntary movements, slowed movements, inability to sit down, expressionless face
interventions for parkinsons disease involves exercises with control ROM exercises and muscles of the face and tongue for?
speech and swallowing.
The drug of choice in parkinsons is?
Lovodopa, amantadine
synthetic anticholinergic drugs are used to block acetylcholine stimulated nerves that lead to tremors drugs such as?
artane, congentin
teaching patient to ambulate by?
taking large steps with feet aprt for balance, keeping back straight and swinging arms.
How can the patient overcome akinisia?
tape the frozen leg to initiate movement.
how can the patient reduce tremors?
hold objects such as coins keys, purse.
how can the patient have partial control of tremors?
when seated have the patient grab the arms of the chairs
To reduce rigidity before exercise tell patient to take a what?
warm bath.
how can the patient initiate movement?
rock back and forth
to prevent spine flexion have the patient do what?
line prone postion without a pillow
other concerns for the home are for safety?
get rid of loose carpet and install grab bars, and elevate the toilet seat, the use of chair lifts can be benficial as well
How can the patient overcome akinisia?
tape the frozen leg to initiate movement.
how can the patient reduce tremors?
hold objects such as coins keys, purse.
how can the patient have partial control of tremors?
when seated have the patient grab the arms of the chairs
To reduce rigidity before exercise tell patient to take a what?
warm bath.
how can the patient initiate movement?
rock back and forth
to prevent spine flexion have the patient do what?
line prone postion without a pillow
other concerns for the home are for safety?
get rid of loose carpet and install grab bars, and elevate the toilet seat, the use of chair lifts can be benficial as well