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20 Cards in this Set

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Protozoa "AMEBIASIS" Entamoeba histolytica

Infectious-Pathologic Stages

Transmission
IP: cyst - trophozoite

trans: fecal-contaminated food/water, anal-oral sex
"AMEBIASIS" Entamoeba histolytica

Location
Symptoms
Large intestine, liver, CNS

bloody/watery diarrhea, constipation then diarrhea

asymptomatic carriage
AMOEBIASIS Entamoeba histolytica

"Amoeboma"

Liver Abscess

Cutaneous Lesion

CNS
mass under oedematous muscosa in large intestine sometimes thought to be tumor, but surgery will allow it to disseminate to blood!

Liver: pain in upper right quadrant

Cutaneous: perianal lesion, penis melts

CNS: edema, inflammation, gliosis
GIARDIASIS - Giardia

Infective - Pathology Stage

Transmission
IP: cyst - trophozoite

Trans: fecal contaminated food/water, anal-oral sex
GIARDIASIS - Giardia

Location

Symptoms

Misc
Locat: small intestine

Sympt: watery diarrhea, steatorrhea (fat in feces), flatulance
*** malabsorption, esp of fats

zoonotic disease, antigenic variation
GIARDIASIS - Giardia

CYST infective stage
* thick wall, small
* granular cytoplasm
* 2-4 nuclei
* remains of locomotor apparatus
GIARDIASIS - Giardia

TROPHOZOITE pathology stage
* thin nuclear memb., LARGE cell
* nuclear memb has NO granules
* 2 nuclei
* 4 pairs of flagella
* sucking disc, blepharoplasts
TRICHIOMONIASIS - Trichomonas vaginalis

Infect- Pathology Stage

Transmission
IP: TROPHOZOITE for both!


Trans: sexual relations
TRICHOMONIASIS - Trichomonas vaginalis

Location

Symptoms
locat: vagina, urethra of men
*** you get it in hot tub!

sympt: Vaginitis, men = little signs
TRICHOMONIASIS - Trichomonas vaginalis

Pathology
"Ping Pong infection"
* must treat BOTH partners
* there's NO immunity bc there's NO penetration of tissue
* no vaccines
* #1 Sexually Transmitted INFECTION
* adheres to genital wall & spreads out, secreting proteolytic enzymes
* "opens door" to other org.'s, ie: HIV
"Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis" - NAEGLERIA

Infect-Pathology Stage

Transmission
IP: TROPHOZOITE for both!

Trans: swimming in fresh water
"Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis" - NAEGLERIA

Location

Symptoms
locat: CNS

sympt: menengitis
* you can die in a week!
"Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis/ Amebic Keratitis**" - ACANTHAMOEBA

Infect-Path Stage

Transmission
Infectious: cyst OR trophozoite
Pathology: trophozoite

Trans: inhale/ingest CYST, or swim in fresh water
"Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis/ Amebic Keratitis**" - ACANTHAMOEBA

Location

Symptoms
locat: brain (chronic- takes a yr to kill you), skin, EYES (dirty contact solution)

Sympt: chronic encephalitis, skin lesions, blindness

***treatable
"Granulatomous Amebic Encephalitis" - BALAMUTHIA

Infect-Path Stages

Transmission
IP: cyst - trophozoite

Trans: ingestion of CYST
"Granulatomous Amebic Encephalitis" - BALAMUTHIA

Location

Symptoms

Prevention
Locat: brain

Sympt: encephalitis
** ALWAYS FATAL!

Prevent: handwashing, purify water
MALARIA (plasmodium falciparum= worst)

Infectious stage

Transmission
Infect: sporozite
(schizonts-gametocytocide, hypnozoites= remain latent in liver)

Trans: mosquito anopheles
MALARIA

location

symptoms
blood, liver, spleen, kidney
*ANEMIA: RBC lysis, suppression of erythropoiesis by cytokines, destruction of RBCs by spleen, autoantibodies to normal RBCs

* liver/JAUNDICE: inc of Kuppfer cells to pick up garbage from lysing RBCs releasing membranes & malarial pigment hemozoin


* Spleen: inc in antibody prod cells, inc in Reticulocytes = SPLENOMEGALY, spleen filters abnormal RBCs

* Renal/BLACKWATER FEVER: bloody urine, glomulnonephritis = renal problems

*** Other: HYPOGLYCEMIA (parasite uses host's glucose), ACIDOSIS (parasite metabolized glu to end prod lactate)
MALARIA

* parasites sequestered in blood vessels

* blood rosetting
SEQUESTERING
* PfEMP1: cytoadherance btwn P.falciparum-parasitized RBCs and endothelium
* P.falciparum contain 150 variable genes for PfEMP1 = no vaccine

BLD ROSETTING
* normal RBCs stick together & block vessels = inc malarial patho
* CRI gene blocks rosetting= less severe malaria
RBC variants conferring MALARIAL RESISTANCE

RBC Membranes

Hemoglobinopathies

RBC Enzymes
* RBC Membrane: Bld grp O,failure of invasion

* Hemoglobinopathies:
HbS (premature removal of immature RBCs), impairment of merozoite release, A-thalassemia, B-thalassesmia (sensitivity to oxidant stress & inc IgG binding)