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103 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Bandura studied
social learning
Vygotsky said that mental processes...
rely on interaction interaction with a knowledgeable partner
Vygotsky said that learning is when...
...something experienced in a social interaction is internalized
What two things did Vygotsky say were important to learning?
parents, language
how many psychosexual stages?
5
Piaget said that learning is...
an interactive process between child and environment
Assimilation (Piaget)
Taking in and organizing information
Accommodation (piaget)
Changing internal schemas to incorporate new information
Equilibration (Piaget)
Active process by which individual achieves balance between individual’s structure of the world and the world itself
Piaget's 4 stages
Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
sensorimotor age
first 18-24 months
sensorimotor characteristics
child’s body, perceptions, and actions are of interest
preoperational age
begins between 18-24 months
preoperational characteristics
represent what they perceive with language
concrete operational age
7 years
concrete operational characteristics
think logically, not bound by appearance of objects
formal operational age
12-14 years
formal operational characteristics
start to think like adults
Gessel says that growth involves...
unfolding of biological patterns
What did Gessel emphasize?
individual differences
what did Gessel say stimulates development?
interactions with parents
What did Erikson say is required for healthy growth?
positive environment
What did Erikson say is required for coping?
frustrating experiences
Evolutionary developmental theory
How genetic heritage influences behavior today
Modules
Specialized abilities passed on through genes
Brofenbrenner was a proponent of...
bioecological theory
PPCT
process, person, context, time framework
PPCT is part of...
...bioecological theory
microsystem
Daily activities and interactions
mesosystem
Relationships and interactions between two or more settings
macrosystem
Broad, culturally shared beliefs about how things are done
watson said that kids are...
...blank slates
watson says personality develops from...
early conditioning of emotions
spock advocated helping children...
gain self-control and learn appropriate social behaviors
Sears discussed
attachment parenting
5 bs of attachment parenting
Bonding, breast-feeding, bed-sharing, baby wearing, belief in cry
parenting types
authoritative, authoritarian, permissive
authoritative
firm control over child’s behavior, emphasize independence and individuality
authoritarian
firm control, but in arbitrary, power-oriented way
permissive
set few limits
___% of pregnancies are planned
50
types of pregnancy decision-making patterns in partners
planners, acceptance of fate, ambivalent, yes-no
___% of births are to unmarried women
33
4 factors that contribute to attachment
sensitivity, mutuality, synchronicity, positive attitude
Sensitivity
Ability to perceive the infant’s signals accurately and respond appropriately and promptly
mutuality
Positive harmony and mutuality in relationship
synchronicity
Coordinated social interactions
scaffolding
Giving the child just enough help when he confronts a new barrier (balancing weaknesses)
authority stage
Parents find themselves doing and saying things they swore they never would
More ____ than ___ have had a child
females, males
almost all adults have had a child by age ___
45
____ are older than ____ at first marriage
males, females
males and females get married in their _____
early 20s
Number of births increased from ____ to ____ following ___ years of decline until ____
1999, 2000, 10, 1997
Birth rates decline with ______
country’s industrialization
people are ____ at first birth today than in 1970
older
average age at first birth in 2000
25
Average number of children per woman has ______ since 1970
increased slightly
_____ of births are to unmarried women
1/3
Number of children under 18 has _____ since 1970
increased
since 1995, the number of kids with stay-at-home dads has ____
doubled
preformation
children as little adults
locke
tabula rasa
rosseau's theory
romantic naturalism
romantic naturalism
noble savages
systems theory researcher
minuchin
entropy
Chaos because of lack of feedback from outside to solve problems
entropy and equifinality are part of...
...systems theory
equifinality
Families share common goals, reach them in different ways
ultimate goal of family as a social system
homeostasis
at snag points,
Inflexibility causes crisis
erikson's infancy stage
trust vs. mistrust
erikson's toddlerhood stage
autonomy vs. shame/doubt
erikson's early childhood stage
initiative vs. guilt
centering
Hard to move away from own perspective into others
thomas and chess
innate differences in temperament
3 types of temperament
flexible, fearful, feisty
4 phases of attachment
pre-attachment, attachment in the making, clear cut attachment, goal-corrected partnership
pre-attachment age
0-3 months
attachment in the making age
3-6 months
clear cut attachment age
6+ months
goal corrected partnership age
4+ years
reciprocity
The degree of positive or negative involvement at given points during interaction
galinsky's stages of parenting development
image-making, nurturing, authority, interpretive, interdependent, departure
image-making stage
preparing for birth and corresponding changes
nurturing stage
becoming attached to infant
authority stage
asserting authority and communicating with preshooler
interpretive stage
parent interpreting world for elementary schoolers
interdependent stage
authority and communication with increasingly independent teens
departure stage
when children leave home
social smile age
3-6 weeks
anger age
3-4 months
surprise age
3-4 months
sadness age
3-4 months
fear age
5-7 months
shame age
6-8 months
shyness age
6-8 months
contempt age
2 years
guilt age
2 years
stranger anxiety age
6 months
social referencing age
14-22 months
The percent of infants securely attached to their fathers is ______ the percent securely attached to mothers
equal to
zone of proximate development
Where children learn (tasks that are not too easy or too hard)