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49 Cards in this Set

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Family Theories
1.Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory 2.Olsen’s Circumplex Model 3.Family Strengths Model Stinnet & DeFrain) 4.Exchange theory
5.ABC-x
Three are 5
Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory
Mircosystems
Mesosystems
Macrosystems
Exosystems
Chronosystem
Systems
Mircosystems
child is an active member
ie. family, child care, peers, community

Mesosystems
where Bronfenbrenner's systems overlap ie. Having friends at home
Exosystems
effect the child, but the child is not an active participant
ie. work, school boards, federal and state commissions
Macrosystems
societal based less direct effect on the child
Olsen's Circumplex Model
three dimensions:
cohesion
flexibility
communication
main point:
balanced family systems tend to be more functional than unbalanced family systems
Cohesion
the emotional bonding that family members have toward one another

Olsen's Circumplex Model
Flexibility
the amount of change in its leadership, role relationships and relationship roles

Olsen's Circumplex Model
Communication
listening and speaking skills, self-disclosure, clarity, respect, and regard. Communication is necessary for creating movement on the other dimensions.

Olsen's Circumplex Model
Exchange Theory : Basic Assumptions
*People are motivated by self-interest.
*Individuals are constrained by their choices. *People are rational.
*Mutual cost-reward: social relationships are also characterized by interdependence.
Rewards
things experiences as pleasurable (varies)

Exchange Theory : Key idea
Costs
status, relationship or feeling that is disliked (varies)


Exchange Theory : Key idea
Profit
gaining the most rewards with the fewest costs


Exchange Theory : Key idea
Comparison level
evaluation of our profit against what we feel we deserve

Exchange Theory : Key idea
Alternatives
comparing outcomes with others

Exchange Theory : key Idea
Reciprocity
social expectation that people should help those who have helped them and not injure those who have helped them

Exchange Theory : key Idea
Examples of rewards and costs:
Social approval
Autonomy
Ambiguity
Security
Money
Value, opinion, belief

Equality
ABC-X Model
This model is the foundation for family stress theory.
A of the ABC-X Model
the stressor event

events are neutral
B of the ABC-X Model
the family's resources or strengths

ability to pull together
to be flexible according to circumstances
knowing when to get help
C of the ACB-X Model
family's perception of the event
how they define or give meaning to the event.
X of the ABC-X Model
the crisis
If the event or stressor causes the family to not be able to figure out the problem leads to crisis
Family Strengths Model
dentifies a family's resources (or strengths) and builds on those resources to address the family's challenges
focuses on positivesrather than focusing on what isn't working and trying to fix it
Qualities in common among strong families in developed countries
(Family Strengths)
1. Commitment to each other, individually and collectively
2. Consistent demonstration of appreciation and affection
3. Positive communication between members
4. Regularly spend time together
5. Spiritual well-being
6. Demonstrate ability to deal with stress without being thrown into crisis
There are 6
Developmental Theories
1.Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development 2.Piaget’s theory of cognitive development 3.Maslow’ hierarchy of needs 4.Bandura’s social learning 5.Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory
There are 5 E,P,M,B,V
Trust vs mistrust
Birth-1 or 1 ½
Safe to do

Erikson’s psychosocial
stage = Infant
Autonomy vs
Shame, Doubt
1-3 years
Can do

Erikson’s psychosocial
stage = Toddler
Initiative vs Guilt
3-6 years
I am okay doing

Erikson’s psychosocial
stage = Preschooler
Piaget’s theory of cognitive development
Children's thinking is different from adult thought
Learning occurs through hands on interaction with the environment 4 stages
Schemas
Cognitive fameworks
Accommodation
adjust our framework to accommodate new experiences
Assimilation
bring experience in existing schemas
Piaget's stages of cognitive development
1. Sensorimotor
2. Preoperational
3. Concrete operational
4. Formal operations
Sensorimotor
0-2/3
explore world via senses
Preoperational
3-6/7
curiosity
bound by visual cues
focus on one thing at a time
Concrete operational
7-11/12
canhold in mind sequence of events, math and directions easier
Schemas
Cognitive fameworks
Accommodation
adjust our framework to accommodate new experiences
Assimilation
bring experience in existing schemas
Piaget's stages of cognitive development
1. Sensorimotor
2. Preoperational
3. Concrete operational
4. Formal operations
Sensorimotor
0-2/3
explore world via senses
Preoperational
3-6/7
curiosity
bound by visual cues
focus on one thing at a time
Concrete operational
7-11/12
canhold in mind sequence of events, can see things from others perspective, not as bound by visual cues
Formal operations
12 -->
more abstract thinking (not everyone reaches this stage)
Most only reach within a specialized field
Vygotsky's Sociocultural theory
Learning occurs in the course of the child's active engagement with the social world.

Social competence is key. (Most important part of environment is the people in it.)
Zone of proximal development
Complicated task that lies just beyond the child's ability, buy can be achieve via scaffolding
Scaffolding
helping someone learn by offering suport, pointing about possibilities, making suggestions, and noticing details, but NOT telling how
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
basic needs:
physiological
safety
belongingness& love
esteem

then you can move onto knowledge & understanding, Aesthetic needs, and eventuall y