Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Derived from chloroplast, 2 phagocytic events, no longer photosynthetic
Apicomplexa types
1.Plasmodium-1=mosquito, 2=humans
2.babesia-1=tick, 2=mammals
3.toxoplasma gondii-1=cat, 2=mammals
4.cryptosporidium-1=mammals, 2=mammals
5.cyclospora-1=mammals, 2=mammals
Apicomplexa Life cycle names (asexual)
Apicomplexa Life cycle names (sexual)
Malaria Epidemiology
Developing world-300mill cases, 2mill deaths, 90% in Africa
US-1000 cases
Malaria Vector
Vector(=1o host) =female mosquitoes(anopheles), bite-night(1am)
Malaria Human life stages
1.pre-erythrocytic stages(asexual types)
2.erythrocytic asexual stages(asexual types)
3.erythrocytic sexual stages(gametocytes)
Malaria clinical course
Prepatent period-asymptomatic, multiplying in liver
Paroxysm-shaking chills, then ↑fever(to 106) when RBC burst to release new merozoites, periodic(48-72hrs)
Malaria diagnosis
1.Giemsa-stained blood smears(thick/thin)
2.Rapid tests
3.Travel history-beware of autochthonous(gotten here)
Plasmodium Vivax/ovale
1.invade reticulocytes, live in enlarged RBC(schuffner’s dots)
2.produce latent form(hypnozoites)-dormant in liver(months-years then re-initiate parasitemia
3.48hr periodicity
Plasmodium Malariae
1.NO hypnozoites-persist in blood at low levels
2.72hr periodicity
Plasmodium Falciparum
1.invade RBC of all ages
2.Sickle-shaped gametocyte(unique)
3.48hr periodicity
Why is falciparum malaria the most leathal?
Mature P. Facliparum secrete prots into RBC->form Knobs on RBC surface, Knobs cytoadhere to caps and are sequestered->block flow to brain
Transmition differences in diseases
•High Transmition->adults immune, disease in kids/primigravidae
•Low Transmition->all ages/gravidity
Genetics/resistance to malaria
1.sickle cell trait
3.gluc-6-phosph dehydrogenase deficiency
5.duffy blood group negative
Babesiosis (location, vector, reservoir)
1.Intra-erythrocytic parasite(like malaria
2.Tick-borne(ixodes scapularis)
3.Reservoir=white-footed mouse
Toxoplasma Gondii Survives How?
Survives in Macs-in phagosome by preventing fusion w/ lysosome
Toxoplasmosis definitive hosts
Only Cats, schizogony+sexual repro in Gut
Toxoplasma Gondii Intermediate Hosts
1.Humans + 200 other mammals
2.Macs, Fibroblasts, Intestinal epithelium
Toxoplasmosis Epidemiology
Seroprevalence in US=22%
Seroprev. In developing/france is higher (50%)
Toxoplasmosis Routes of infection
1.Oocyst from cat feces
2.Cyst (bradyzoites) from undercooked meat(steak tartar)
Toxoplasmosis Acute disease
10-20% develop mono like illness
Congenital Toxoplasmosis
1.Primary infection during:
•1st trimester->congenital malformations(hydrocephalus, retardation), ocular disease
•2nd/3rd trimester->abortions
2.Non-immune women should avoid cats/raw meat
AIDS w/ Toxoplasmosis
AIDS Reactivates Latent infection
1.Encephalitis=usually fatal
2.Retinal lesions
3-5% of all opportunistic infections
Protect w/ cotrimoxazole(TMP/SMX) prophylaxis
Toxoplasmosis Diagnosis
2.Culture/inoculation of mice
Toxoplasmosis Treatment
1.Antifolates (pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine)
Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis/etc. Characteristics
1.Cattle pathogen
2.humans in 1976
3.water-bourne in 1985
4.opportunistic w/ AIDS
5.NO Effective Treatment
6.Immunocompetent=mild diarrhea
7.Immunocompromised=severe diarrhea
Cryptosporidiosis Transmition paths
1.Drinking water
2.swimming pools
Cryptosporidiosis survival characteristic
Cysts are chlorine-resistant
Cryptosporidiosis Outbreaks
>100 in US
Municipal water supplies
Big Milwaukee outbreak(400,000 cases)
Cryptosporidiosis Epidemiology in immunocompetent
•Developing countries-6% of diarrhea
•Developed count.-2% of diarrhea
Cryptosporidiosis Epidemiology in HIV
•Developing-24% of diarrhea
•Developed-14% of diarrhea
Cryptosporidiosis Prevalence
Prevalence based on serology in adults
Cryptosporidiosis Genotypes
1.Cryptosporidium Hominis=humans only
2.Cryptosporidium Parvum=Cattle and humans
Cryptosporidiosis Genotypes in US/UK
C. hominis
Cryptosporidiosis genotypes in developing countries
Usually C. parvum
Cyclospora sp. characteristics
1.Looks like Cryptosporidium but bigger
2.same life cycle as Cryptosporidium
Cyclosporiasis characteristics
1.Looks like cryptosporidium but bigger
2.Causes illness like cryptosporidium
3.2-20% prevalence in developing count.
Cyclosporiasis outbreaks
In N. America due to imported Guatemalan raspberries
Cyclosporiasis treatment