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40 Cards in this Set

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Apicoplast
Derived from chloroplast, 2 phagocytic events, no longer photosynthetic
Apicomplexa types
1.Plasmodium-1=mosquito, 2=humans
2.babesia-1=tick, 2=mammals
3.toxoplasma gondii-1=cat, 2=mammals
4.cryptosporidium-1=mammals, 2=mammals
5.cyclospora-1=mammals, 2=mammals
Apicomplexa Life cycle names (asexual)
1.merozoite(ring)
2.trophozoite
3.schizont
Apicomplexa Life cycle names (sexual)
1.Gametes
2.Oocyst
3.Sporozoite
Malaria Epidemiology
Developing world-300mill cases, 2mill deaths, 90% in Africa
US-1000 cases
Malaria Vector
Vector(=1o host) =female mosquitoes(anopheles), bite-night(1am)
Malaria Human life stages
1.pre-erythrocytic stages(asexual types)
2.erythrocytic asexual stages(asexual types)
3.erythrocytic sexual stages(gametocytes)
4.hypnozoite
Malaria clinical course
Prepatent period-asymptomatic, multiplying in liver
Paroxysm-shaking chills, then ↑fever(to 106) when RBC burst to release new merozoites, periodic(48-72hrs)
Malaria diagnosis
1.Giemsa-stained blood smears(thick/thin)
2.Rapid tests
3.Travel history-beware of autochthonous(gotten here)
Plasmodium Vivax/ovale
1.invade reticulocytes, live in enlarged RBC(schuffner’s dots)
2.produce latent form(hypnozoites)-dormant in liver(months-years then re-initiate parasitemia
3.48hr periodicity
Plasmodium Malariae
1.NO hypnozoites-persist in blood at low levels
2.72hr periodicity
Plasmodium Falciparum
1.invade RBC of all ages
2.Sickle-shaped gametocyte(unique)
3.48hr periodicity
Why is falciparum malaria the most leathal?
Mature P. Facliparum secrete prots into RBC->form Knobs on RBC surface, Knobs cytoadhere to caps and are sequestered->block flow to brain
Transmition differences in diseases
•High Transmition->adults immune, disease in kids/primigravidae
•Low Transmition->all ages/gravidity
Genetics/resistance to malaria
1.sickle cell trait
2.thalassemia
3.gluc-6-phosph dehydrogenase deficiency
4.ovalocytosis
5.duffy blood group negative
Babesiosis (location, vector, reservoir)
1.Intra-erythrocytic parasite(like malaria
2.Tick-borne(ixodes scapularis)
3.Reservoir=white-footed mouse
Toxoplasma Gondii Survives How?
Survives in Macs-in phagosome by preventing fusion w/ lysosome
Toxoplasmosis definitive hosts
Only Cats, schizogony+sexual repro in Gut
Toxoplasma Gondii Intermediate Hosts
1.Humans + 200 other mammals
2.Macs, Fibroblasts, Intestinal epithelium
3.Bradyzoites(cysts)
4.Tachyzoites(trophozoites)
Toxoplasmosis Epidemiology
Seroprevalence in US=22%
Seroprev. In developing/france is higher (50%)
Toxoplasmosis Routes of infection
1.Oocyst from cat feces
2.Cyst (bradyzoites) from undercooked meat(steak tartar)
Toxoplasmosis Acute disease
10-20% develop mono like illness
Congenital Toxoplasmosis
1.Primary infection during:
•1st trimester->congenital malformations(hydrocephalus, retardation), ocular disease
•2nd/3rd trimester->abortions
2.Non-immune women should avoid cats/raw meat
AIDS w/ Toxoplasmosis
AIDS Reactivates Latent infection
1.Encephalitis=usually fatal
2.Retinal lesions
3-5% of all opportunistic infections
Protect w/ cotrimoxazole(TMP/SMX) prophylaxis
Toxoplasmosis Diagnosis
1.Serology
2.Culture/inoculation of mice
Toxoplasmosis Treatment
1.Antifolates (pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine)
2.Atovaquone
Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis/etc. Characteristics
1.Cattle pathogen
2.humans in 1976
3.water-bourne in 1985
4.opportunistic w/ AIDS
5.NO Effective Treatment
6.Immunocompetent=mild diarrhea
7.Immunocompromised=severe diarrhea
Cryptosporidiosis Transmition paths
1.Drinking water
2.swimming pools
3.food
Cryptosporidiosis survival characteristic
Cysts are chlorine-resistant
Cryptosporidiosis Outbreaks
>100 in US
Day-care
Municipal water supplies
Big Milwaukee outbreak(400,000 cases)
Cryptosporidiosis Epidemiology in immunocompetent
•Developing countries-6% of diarrhea
•Developed count.-2% of diarrhea
Cryptosporidiosis Epidemiology in HIV
•Developing-24% of diarrhea
•Developed-14% of diarrhea
Cryptosporidiosis Prevalence
Prevalence based on serology in adults
•brazil-100%
•china-60%
•US-20%
Cryptosporidiosis Genotypes
1.Cryptosporidium Hominis=humans only
2.Cryptosporidium Parvum=Cattle and humans
Cryptosporidiosis Genotypes in US/UK
C. hominis
Cryptosporidiosis genotypes in developing countries
Usually C. parvum
Cyclospora sp. characteristics
1.Looks like Cryptosporidium but bigger
2.same life cycle as Cryptosporidium
3.NO ANIMAL RESERVOIR
Cyclosporiasis characteristics
1.Looks like cryptosporidium but bigger
2.Causes illness like cryptosporidium
3.2-20% prevalence in developing count.
Cyclosporiasis outbreaks
In N. America due to imported Guatemalan raspberries
Cyclosporiasis treatment
bactrim