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93 Cards in this Set

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Parasites with arrested stages
Strongyloides: L4
Toxacara: L2 (somatic migration)
Ancylostoma: L3 (muscle), reactivated during stress/pregnancy
Ostertagia: L4 in gastric glands (type II ostertagiasis)
Oesophagostomum: L3 in submucosal cysts thru out intestine
Trichinella: L1 encyst in muscle tissue, reactivated when ingested by warm blooded animal
Aelurostrongylus

1. site & host
2. clinical sign
3. mode of transmission
4. dx
1. lungs of cat
2. chronic cough
3. ingestion of rodent/bird/frog or snail/slug
4. dx: larvae in feces/sputum
Alaria

1. site & hosts
2. zoonosis
1. dog/cat SI
2. resp. distress, death from eating raw frog legs
Anoplocephala

1. site & host
2. mode of transmission
1. horse SI
2. forage mite
Ancylostoma

1. host & site
2. PPP
3. mode of transmission
4. signs
5. arrest?
6. zoonosis
1. dog SI
2. 3 wks
3. ingestion of L3, ingestion of PT, skin penetration, transmammary
4. anemia, edema, melena
5. L3 in muscle
6. cutaneous LM
Ascaris suum

1. site & host
2. PPP
3. mode of transmission
4. migration?
1. pig SI
2. 60 d.
3. ingestion of infective egg
4. hepatotracheal
Balantidium

1. class of parasite
2. site
1. only known pathogenic CILIATE
2. LI
Calliphoridae

1. site of eggs
2. site of larvae (maggots)
3. signs
1. carrion, wounds, decaying veggie matter
2. wounds, wet hair (eat dead flesh)
3. wool strike
Coccidiosis

1. oocysts
2. age of animal affected
3. specificity
1. oocysts not infectious when passed
2. young more likely to have clinical dz
3. all species host specific
Coccidiosis in Dogs & Cats

1. who shows clinical dz
2. signs
3. tx
1. young, immunosuppressed
2. bloody/mucoid diarrhea
3. none needed
Cochliomyia

1. common name
2. site of larvae
1. primary screwworm
2. edge of wound (feed on living tissue)
Cryptosporidium

1. oocysts
2. pathology
3. control
4. hosts
1. oocysts infectious when passed (large # passed)
2. calves < 3 wks: severe diarrhea
3. resistant to many disinfectants
4. many mammals, incl. man
Culicoides

1. site of larvae
2. pathology
1. water or rotting vegetation
2. bites --> swelling, pruritis (ddx: swinepox)
Cyathasomes

1. site & host
2. PPP
3. tx, control
4. signs
1. horse LI (2-4 yrs old)
2. > 3 mo.
3. resistant to many drugs; rotate pastures
4. anemia, diarrhea
Dermanyssus

1. common name
2. feeding habits
3. signs
1. red mite/roost mite
2. feed on birds at night
3. anemia
Orithonyssus

1. common name
2. feeding habits
3. signs
1. Northern fowl mite
2. spends most of time on birds
3. matted feathers
Dicrocoelium

1. host & site
2. life cycle
3. pathology in what age group
1. sheep/goat, bile duct
2. land snail --> ants
3. older animals
Dictyocaulus

1. site & hosts
2. control
1. lungs of ruminants, horses
2. don't graze horses w/ donkeys
Diphyllobothrium

1. hosts
2. mode of transmission
3. parasite type
1. dogs, man
2. ingestion of fish
3. cestode
Dipylidium

1. hosts
2. mode of transmission
3. dx
4. zoonosis
1. dog/cat
2. ingestion of fleas
3. OVAL segs in feces, oval egg packets filled w/ spherical eggs
4. infected by eating fleas (adult worm in SI)
Dirofilaria life cycle
MF in blood of dog --> MF ingested by mosquito during blood meal --> L3 in mosquito's abdomen --> L3 to body cavity of mosquito (needs ~2 wks at >60F) --> L3 enters skin of dog when mosquito feeds --> L4 migrate thru CT --> pulmonary aa. (2-3 mo.) --> L5 (3-4 mo.) --> adults begin producing MF ~6 mo. after infection
Echinococcus granulosus

1. definitive host
2. intermediate hosts
3. zoonosis
1. dog
2. ruminant, pig, man
3. unilocular cysts in various organs
Echinoccus multilocularis

1. definitive host
2. intermediate hosts
3. zoonosis
1. dog, cat
2. rodents, cow, horse, pig, man
3. multilocular cysts in various organs, infiltrative like a tumor
Eimeria bovis

1. type of parasite
2. signs
3. age of affected cow
4. tx
1. protozoa
2. diarrhea, tenesmus
3. young
4. prophylaxis w/ medicated food/water
Entamoeba

1. reservoir host
2. dead end host
3. type of parasite
1. man
2. dog: don't form infectious cysts
3. amoeba
Eutyrema

1. type of parasite
2. site & host
1. trematode
2. pancreatic duct, cat
Fasciola hepatica

1. site & host
2. life cycle
3. pathology
4. dx
5. zoonosis
1. liver, bile ducts of ruminants
2. pond snail --> water vegetation
3. liver damage, bile duct stenosis, anemia, edema (similar to Haemonchus), liver condemnation
4. fecal sed
5. eating raw liver
Fascioloides magna

1. definitive host
2. dead end host & site
3. life cycle
4. pathology
5. dx
1. cervids
2. ruminants, liver
3. pond snail --> water veg.
4. sheep/goats: severe liver damage, sudden death
cows: liver condemnation
5. necropsy
Gasterophilus

1. common name
2. site of eggs
3. site of larvae
4. when to tx
1. horse bot fly
2. forelegs, face of horse
3. stomach of horse (passed in feces)
4. tx after fly free date (after frost)
Giardia

1. infective stage
2. pathology
1. cysts
2. malabsorption
Glossina

1. common name
2. site of larvae
3. reservoir
4. dz transmission
1. tse tse fly
2. sandy soil
3. wild ruminants
4. African sleeping sickness, nagana
Habronema/Draschia

1. site & host
2. mode of transmission
3. signs
4. tx
1. stomach of horse
2. flies that bite horse
3. anorexia, gastritis, skin lesions
4. fly control
Haemonchus

1. site & host
2. signs
3. tx
1. abomasum of sheep/goats
2. anemia, hypoproteinemia, inc. HR, RR
3. resistant to several drugs
Haemotobia

1. common name
2. site of larvae
3. pathology
1. horn fly
2. cow manure
3. painful bites, wt. loss
Hemoproteus

1. site & host
2. mode of transmission
3. pathology
1. gamonts in RBCs of birds
2. mosquito feeds of bird
3. none
Heterakis

1. host
2. mode of transmission
3. pathology
4. control
1. chicken, turkey
2. ingestion of earthworms
3. carry protozoa Histomonas --> blackhead dz in turkeys
4. don't mix chicken w/ turkeys
Heterobilharzia

1. type of parasite
2. site & host
3. mode of transmission
4. pathology
5. zoonosis
1. trematode
2. mesenteric vessels of dog
3. skin penetration
4. ova in mesenteris venules --> granulomatous rxn, diarrhea, etc.
5. swamp itch
Hypoderma

1. common name
2. site of larvae
3. tx
1. cattle grub
2. SQ cysts on back
3. tx that kills bot while in spinal canal or esophagus --> paralysis or bloat --> tx right after fly season ends, when not encysted
Isospora suis

1. site & host
2. age affected
3. pathology
4. mode of infection
1. pig SI
2. neonatal
3. diarrhea
4. contaminated farrowing crates
Keds

1. site of larvae
2. mode of transmission
1. wool
2. direct contact
Leishmania

1. site
2. mode of transmission
3. 3 froms
1. monocytes
2. sand fly
3. cutaneous, mucocutaneous, visceral
Leucocytozoon

1. site & host
2. site of larvae
3. mode of transmission
4. pathology
1. gamonts in WBCs of birds
2. running water
3. black fly
4. bird malaria (anemia, bronchitis)
Metastrongylus

1. site & host
2. mode of infection
1. bronchi of pigs
2. ingestion of earthworms
Moniezia

1. site & host
2. mode of transmission
3. type of parasite
1. SI, ruminants
2. forage mites
3. cestode
Musca autumnalis

1. common name
2. site of larvae
3. pathology
4. biting?
1. face fly
2. fresh cow manure
3. feed on lacrimal secretions of cattle
4. NO
Musca domestica

1. common name
2. site of larvae
3. vector for?
4. biting?
1. house fly
2. decaying organic matter
3. Crypto, Habronema
4. NO
Nanophyetus

1. site & host
2. life cycle
3. pathology
4. zoonosis
1. SI of dogs/cats
2. river snail --> salmon/trout
3. salmon poisoning (Neorickettsia helminthocea)
4. flukes only
Neospora

1. host
2. mode of transmission
3. pathology
1. dog (DH & IH)
2. ingestion of sporulated oocysts from dog feces or transplacental
3. dog: ascending hind limb paresis
cattle/sheep: abortion
Oesophagostomum

1. site & host
2. pathology
1. ruminants & pigs, LI
2. L3 in submucosal cysts thru out inestines
Oestrus

1. common name
2. site of larvae
1. sheep bot
2. nostrils of sheep/goats
Ostertagia

1. site & host
2. PPP
3. life cycle
4. signs
1. abomasum of cow
2. 3 wks
3. Type 1: L4 to abomasal lumen
Type 2: L4 arrest in gastric glands
4. hypoproteinemia, diarrhea, anorexia, edema
Oxyuris

1. site & host
2. signs
3. dx
1. LI of horse
2. colitis, perianal itching (bare tailhead)
3. scotch tape test (oval eggs w/ single operculum)
Paragonimus

1. site & hosts
2. life cycle
3. signs
4. dx
1. lungs of dog/cat
2. river snail --> crayfish
3. chronic cough, rusty sputum
4. fecal sed
Paramphistomum

1. site & host
2. life cycle
3. path due to what stage
1. rumen of ruminants
2. pond snail --> water vegetation
3. migrating immature flukes in duodenum
Parascaris

1. site & host
2. mode of transmission
3. signs
4. PPP
5. age affected
6. tx
1. SI of horse
2. ingestion of infective egg
3. pot belly, diarrhea, rough coat, colic
4. 80 d.
5. young (< 2 mo.)
6. start at 2 mo, every 2 mo for 1 yr
Phlebotomus, Lutzomyia

1. common names
2. site of larvae
3. vector for?
1. sand flies, gnats
2. organic matter
3. Leishmania
Physaloptera

1. site & hosts
2. mode of transmission
1. stomach of dogs/cats
2. ingestion of dung beetle
Plasmodium

1. site & host
2. pathology
1. meronts, gamonts in RBCs of birds
2. malaria (anemia, vessel occlusion, paralysis)
Platynosomum

1. site & host
2. life cycle
3. pathology
1. bile/pancreatic ducts of cat
2. land snail --> roly poly bug --> lizard/toad
3. usually none, "lizard poisoning"
Psoroptes, Chorioptes

1. common names
2. site on host
1. scab mites
2. under scab
Sarcocystis cruzi

1. type of parasite
2. DH, IH
3. pathology
4. mode of transmission
1. protozoa
2. DH: dog, IH: cow
3. dog: none
cow: Dalmeny dz: abortion, anorexia, rat tail
4. cow: eats sporocysts from dog feces
dog: eats infected raw meat
Sarcocystis neurona

1. DH, IH, dead end host
2. pathology
3. tx
4. mode of transmission
1. DH: opossum, IH: bird, dead end host: horse
2. equine protozoan myelitis: ataxia, muscle atrophy (may be latent for 2 yrs)
4. sporocysts from opossum feces survive for ~ 1 yr, infectious when passed
Simulium, Cnephia

1. common names
2. site of larvae
3. pathology
4. vector for?
1. black flu, southern buffalo gnat
2. flowing water
2. irritating bites --> blood loss, toxemia
3. leucocytozoon (birds)
Spirometra

1. DH
2. what's shed by DH
4. zoonosis
1. dog, cat
2. ova, NOT segs
3. sparganosis: larvae in organs & muscle (drinking stream water)
Stomoxys

1. common name
2. site of larvae
3. pathology
4. where commonly found
1. stable fly
2. rotting veggie matter or manure
3. painful bites (cattle, horses, man)
4. outside walls of buildings
Strongyloides

1. site
2. unique life cycle trait
3. modes of transmission
4. PPP
5. age affected
1. SI
2. free living generation: sexual rep outside host
3. skin penetration or lactogenic
4. 5-10 d.
5. newborns: reinfect mom
tx of stronglye infection in horses

5 points
1. avoid putting foals on pasture w/ yearlings
2. remove feces
3. tx every 2 mo. w/ high density grazing &/or young susceptible horses
4. larvacidal drugs when coming off & going on pasture to eliminate migrating or encysted larvae
5. monitor fecal egg counts
Strongylus vulgaris

1. site & host
2. PPP
3. migration
4. pathology
1. LI of horse
2. 6 mo.
3. LI --> cranial mesenteric a. --> LI
4. colic, diarrhea, infarction
Syngamus

1. site & host
2. mode of transmission
3. signs
1. trachea of birds
2. ingesting earthworm or infective eggs/larvae
3. coughing
Tabanus, Chrysops

1. common names
2. site of larvae
3. biting?
4. good vector d/t?
1. horsefly, deerfly
2. water
3. yes
4. interrupted feeding, large blood meals
Taenia hydatigena

1. DH
2. IH
3. pathology in IH
1. dog
2. sheep, pigs
3. liver damage, black dz --> liver condemnation
Taenia multiceps

1. DH
2. IH
3. pathology in IH
1. dog
2. sheep, cattle, cat
3. brain damage: blindness, incoordination, head pressing
Taenia ovis

1. DH
2. IH
3. pathology in IH
1. dog
2. sheep
3. muscle & heart damage --> mutton condemnation
Taenia pisiformis

1. DH
2. IH
3. dx
1. dog
2. rabbit, squirrel
3. rectangular segs; spherical ova w/ striated shell
Taenia saginata

1. DH
2. IH
3. pathology in IH
1. man
2. cattle
3. muscle & heart damage --> beef condemnation (measly beef)
Taenia solium

1. DH
2. IH
3. pathology in DH
4. pathology in IH
1. man
2. pig
3. if ingest ova (self infection): cysticerci in various organs
4. muscle & heart damage --> pork condemnation (measly pork)
Taenia taeniaeformis

1. DH
2. IH
1. cat
2. rodent
Lone Star Tick
Amblyomma americanum
Brown dog tick & vector for...
Rhipicephalus sanguineus

Ehrlichia, Babesia canis
American dog tick & vector for...
Dermacenter variablis

RMSF
Deer tick & vector for...
Ixodes scapularis

Lyme dz
Toxocara canis

1. site & host
2. mode of transmission
3. PPP
4. tx
5. signs
6. zoonosis
7. arrest?
8. time outside host to develop?
1. SI of dog
2. ingestion of infective egg, ingestion of PT, transmammary, transuterine
3. 3-5 wks
4. start at 2-3 wks every 2 wks
5. pot bellied, diarrhea
6. visceral/ocular LM
7. yes: in SI
8. 3 wks
Toxocara cati

1. site & host
2. mode of transmission
3. PPP
4. zoonosis
5. tx
1. SI of cat
2. ingestion of egg, ingestion of PT, transmammary
3. 8 wks
4. visceral LM
5. start at 6 wks
Toxoplasma

1. site of asexual stages
2. site of sexual stages
3. modes of transmission
4. which stages are infectious?
1. all warm blooded verts (any nucleated cell)
2. cat ONLY
3. ingestion of sporulated oocysts (NOT sporulated when passed), ingestion of merozoites in flesh of host, transplacental (rare in cats)
4. ALL
Toxoplasma

1. signs in cats
2. signs in man
1. usually none, enteritis, pneumonia, encephalitis
2. usually none
congenital: if woman becomes infected DURING pregnancy: CNS pathology
acquired: cerebral toxo in AIDS patients
Trichinella

1. host & site
2. mode of transmission
3. dx
4. signs in man
1. SI of any warm blooded animal
2. pigs eats rodent carcasses
infective L1 encyst in muscle, reactivate when ingested
3. NO eggs or larva in feces (do serology)
4. paralysis, myositis, enteritis
Trichomonas gallinae

1. host
2. mode of transmission
3. pathology
1. birds (pigeons)
2. regurgitation, ingestion of birds
3. fluid in crop
Trichostrongyles in Cool Climate

1. development & transmission
2. tx
3. reactivation of L4
1. summer --> early fall
2. spring, late fall
3. early spring
Trichostrongyles in Warm Climate

1. development & transmission
2. tx
3. reactivation of L4
1. winter --> early spring
2. fall, late spring
3. early fall
Trichostrongylus

1. site & hosts
2. PPP
3. pathology
4. control
1. stomach of horse/ruminants
2. 3 wks
3. horses: diarrhea, eroded stomach epi
4. don't cograze horses w/ sheep, goats
Trichuris

1. site & host
2. PPP
3. mode of transmission
4. hard to tx/control b/c...
5. signs
6. eggs require time outside host?
1. LI of dog
2. 3 mo.
3. ingestion of infective eggs
4. eggs very resistant outside host, sporadic egg producers, drugs DO NOT kill larvae or immature adults during 1st 2 mo. of infection
5. intermittent bloody diarrhea, anorexia
6. 3 wks
Tritrichomonas

1. hosts
2. modes of transmission
3. signs
1. cattle, cats
2. veneral in cattle
3. bulls: none (permanent carriers), cows: abortion (immune after 1st infection), cats: chronic large bowel diarrhea
Trypanosoma

1. site & host
2. disease name
3. pathology
4. mode of transmission
5. zoonosis
1. all nucleated cells of dogs
2. Chagas dz
3. anemia, arrhythmias, cardiomyopathy
4. reduviid bugs
5. CHF