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312 Cards in this Set

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Definition of parasite
Worm, protozoa, arthropod (ie, not virus, bacteria, fungus)
What are the 3 most important stages of the parasite life cycle?
Infectious, pathogenic, diagnostic
What are the 2 types of hosts?
Definitive host, Intermediate host
What defines the definitive host?
Parasite is sexually mature, able to reproduce
What defines the intermediate host?
A host that supports the growth of the parasite
Whats defines an accidental host?
Parasite cannot grow or reproduce, but may still cause disease
What is the best source of information for treatment of parasitic disease?
The Medical Letter
What determines the extent of disease in most parasitic infections?
The number of worm eggs or larvae that enter (most worms do not multiply in humans)
Classification of round worms
Intestinal (Enterobius, Trichuris, Ascaris, Ancylostoma, Necator, Strongyloides) NEWLINE Tissue (Larva Migrans, Trichinella, Dracunulus)
Types of filariases
Wuchereria (Elephantiasis), Onchocerca (River Blindness), Loa Loa (Eye Worm)
Classification of flat worms
Flukes (Schistosomes) NEWLINE Tapeworms (Taenia Saginata, Taenia Solium, Diphyllobothrium Latum, Echinococcus Granulosus, Echinococcus Multilocularis)
Types of schistosomes
Mansoni, Haematobium, Japonicum
Classification of arthropods
Insects (Lice, Fleas, Bugs, Flies) NEWLINE Arachnids (Ticks, Mites, Spiders, Scorpions)
Definition of protozoa
Single-celled eukaryote
List the anaerobic protozoa
Entamoeba histolytica (Amebiasis), Giardia, Trichomonas Vaginalis
List the four intestinal parasites
Cyclospora, Cryptosporidium, Isospora, Microsporidia
List the three types of malaria parasites
Falciparum, Vivax, Malariae
This worm has a ciliated stage
Schistosome
Pipestem fibrosis is a feature of this worm infection
Schistosomiasis
These are the parasitic diseases seen in AIDS patients, in order of frequency
1. Pneumocystis (penumonia) NEWLINE2. Toxoplasmosis (encephalitis) NEWLINE3. Cryptosporidiosis (diarrhea) NEWLINE4. Amebiasis (dysentery, invasive dz) NEWLINE5. Visceral leishmaniasis NEWLINE6. Strongyloides hyperinfection (very rare)
These are the hemoflagellates
African trypanosomes, Leishmania, Trypanosoma cruzi
Definition of parasite
Worm, protozoa, arthropod (ie, not virus, bacteria, fungus)
What are the 3 most important stages of the parasite life cycle?
Infectious, pathogenic, diagnostic
What are the 2 types of hosts?
Definitive host, Intermediate host
What defines the definitive host?
Parasite is sexually mature, able to reproduce
What defines the intermediate host?
A host that supports the growth of the parasite
Whats defines an accidental host?
Parasite cannot grow or reproduce, but may still cause disease
What is the best source of information for treatment of parasitic disease?
The Medical Letter
What determines the extent of disease in most parasitic infections?
The number of worm eggs or larvae that enter (most worms do not multiply in humans)
Classification of round worms
Intestinal (Enterobius, Trichuris, Ascaris, Ancylostoma, Necator, Strongyloides) NEWLINE Tissue (Larva Migrans, Trichinella, Dracunulus)
Types of filariases
Wuchereria (Elephantiasis), Onchocerca (River Blindness), Loa Loa (Eye Worm)
Classification of flat worms
Flukes (Schistosomes) NEWLINE Tapeworms (Taenia Saginata, Taenia Solium, Diphyllobothrium Latum, Echinococcus Granulosus, Echinococcus Multilocularis)
Types of schistosomes
Mansoni, Haematobium, Japonicum
Classification of arthropods
Insects (Lice, Fleas, Bugs, Flies) NEWLINE Arachnids (Ticks, Mites, Spiders, Scorpions)
Definition of protozoa
Single-celled eukaryote
List the anaerobic protozoa
Entamoeba histolytica (Amebiasis), Giardia, Trichomonas Vaginalis
List the four intestinal parasites
Cyclospora, Cryptosporidium, Isospora, Microsporidia
List the three types of malaria parasites
Falciparum, Vivax, Malariae
This worm has a ciliated stage
Schistosome
Pipestem fibrosis is a feature of this worm infection
Schistosomiasis
These are the parasitic diseases seen in AIDS patients, in order of frequency
1. Pneumocystis (penumonia) NEWLINE2. Toxoplasmosis (encephalitis) NEWLINE3. Cryptosporidiosis (diarrhea) NEWLINE4. Amebiasis (dysentery, invasive dz) NEWLINE5. Visceral leishmaniasis NEWLINE6. Strongyloides hyperinfection (very rare)
These are the hemoflagellates
African trypanosomes, Leishmania, Trypanosoma cruzi
This is commonly seen in worm infections
Eosinophilia
These play a major role in the immune response against worms
Eosinophils
These types of parasitic infections are notable for *not* eliciting eosinophilia
Worms in the intestine, protozoan infections
Description of the anatomy of round worms
Outer tube: impermeable cuticle NEWLINE Inner tubes: tubular gonads, intestines
T/F: Most round worms release live larvae
False. Most worms release eggs
This worm causes an asymptomatic or minor intestinal worm infection
Enterobius (pinworm)
What are the definitive and intermediate hosts of pinworm?
Humans are the only hosts
What is the infective stage of Enterobius?
Embryonated eggs
Where do eggs of Enterobius hatch?
Small intestine
Where do Enterobius larvae mature?
Cecum
Number of eggs produced by female Enterobius
10,000
Describe Enterobius egg-laying.
Female crawls from cecum through colon to anal sphincter where she released UNEMBRYONATED eggs, then dies
How long does it take for Enterobius eggs to become infectious?
They become embryonated incredibly fast--within 6 hours--thus this disease is not eradicated by santiary revolution.
How long do Enterobius eggs remain infectious?
Less than 2 weeks
How long does it take for Enterobius to mature after hatching?
5-6 weeks.
Diagnostic stage of Enterobius
Eggs on perianal folds
How is Enterobius diagnosed?
Scotch tape preparation of perianal eggs.
Describe the Enterobius egg.
Thick-walled, colorless shell with developing larva inside, flattened on one side.
Clinical signs and symptoms of pinworm
Anal itch
How many worms does a child with pinworm typically have?
50 on average
What is the most common worm infection?
Pinworm. 30% of children and 15% of adults worldwide.
Complications of pinworm
Pinworm neurosis (mother or father paranoid about worms, spend 8 hours/day cleaning, etc.)
Treatment of pinworm
Bendazole. It is important to treat the entire family since eggs get everywhere, and re-treat about three weeks later.
T/F: good sanitary measures can prevent reinfection by pinworm
False. Reinfection is almost inevitable. Pinworm is the one worm infection that is not eradicated in the santitary revolution of developed countries.
Infective stage of Trichuris
Embryonated eggs
Diagnostic stage of Trichuris
Eggs in feces
Transmission of Trichuris (Whipworm)
Humans ingest embryonated eggs from human fecal contamination
Where do eggs of Trichuris hatch?
Small intestine
Where do Trichuris larvae mature?
Cecum
How long does it take for Trichuris to mature after hatching?
2 months
How long does it take for Trichuris eggs to become infective?
3 weeks (thus this disease is eradicated by sanitation revolution)
Describe Trichuris egg-laying
Female releases eggs from within the cecum, which are then excreted out in the feces of the host
Describe the Trichuris egg
Brown egg shell (stained by bile), underdeveloped embryo (older eggs have larval worm)
These worms anchor themselves to the intestinal mucosa
Trichuris (Whipworm); Ancylostoma, Necator (Hookworm)
The female of this worm type grows to 4 cm long
Trichuris (Whipworm)
This worm lives for several years and produces 8,000 eggs each day
Trichuris (Whipworm)
Clinical signs and symptoms of whipworm
Mild or subclinical; lots of worms can cause diarrhea
Geographic distribution of Trichuris
Southeastern rural USA; tropical regions around the world
Geographic distribution of Enterobius
Global
Complications of whipworm
Anemia, abdominal pain, severe diarrhea, rectal prolapse in exceedingly heavy infections
Recal prolapse is a complication of this worm infection
Trichuris (Whipworm)
Anemia can result from infection by these worms
Trichuris (Whipworm); Ancylostoma, Necator (Hookworm)
Treatment of whipworm
Bendazole
The female of this worm type grows to 35 cm long
Ascaris, Onchocerca
These two worms have a relatively simple life cycle, whereas this worm has a relatively complex life cycle
Enterobius (pinworm), Trichuris (whipworm); Ascaris
Infective stage of Ascaris
Embryonated eggs
Where do eggs of Ascaris hatch?
Small intestine
Where do Ascaris larvae mature?
Partially mature in the alveoli, fully mature in the small intestine after being re-swallowed
Migration of Ascaris larvae
Larvae are tiny after hatching and penetrate into portal circulation, then travel to lung capillaries where they break out into alveoli, and then make their way up the respiratory tree and are re-swallowed
When do Ascaris worms begin to produce eggs?
2 months after infection
How long does it take for Ascaris eggs to become embryonated and therefore infective?
3 weeks (thus this disease is eradicated by sanitation revolution)
Diagnostic stage of Ascaris
Egg in feces
Unmated females of this worm species will lay non-fertilized eggs
Ascaris
Describe the Ascaris egg
Lumpy-bumpy surface; thick, yellow-brown shell (bile-stained), underdeveloped unicellular embryo
Clinical signs and symptoms of Ascaris
Usually asymptomatic, but may include: exit of adult worm through anus; abdominal pain, n/v; fever; eosinophilia (during larval migration through lung); pneumonitis (only in heavy infection, during larval migration); obstruction
Complications of Ascaris
Malabsorption, intestinal obstruction (knotted mass of worms), biliary obstruction (worms in bile duct), pancreatic obstruction, hemorrhagic pneumonitis (during larval migration phase)
This worm affects mainly children
Ascaris
Hemorrhagic pneumonitis is a complication of this worm infection
Ascaris
This worm infection is very common in the tropics and occasionally seen in the USA, especially in the southeast
Ascariasis
How many eggs does an Ascaris female lay per day?
A lot: 200,000
How long do Ascaris eggs remain infective?
Months, though they are destroyed by sunlight or drying, but stable to feezing
Most infections by this worm in New England are by the pig version of the worm via pig fecal contamination
Ascaris
Treatment of Ascaris
Bendazole
Prevention of Ascaris, Trichuris, Hookworm
Sanitary disposal of feces
These worms can cause severe anemia
Ancylostoma, Necator (Hookworm spp.)
Diagnostic stage of Hookworms
Eggs in feces
Describe Hookworm egg
Thin shell
This roundworm enters the human host by penetrating the skin and entering the blood
Hookworm
The larval development of these three roundworms is similar
Ascaris, Hookworm, Strongyloides
Migration of Hookworm larvae
Enter through the skin into circulation, then leave via lung capillaries into the alveoli, climb the respiratory tree and are swallowed, then complete maturation in the small intestine
Survival time of infectious Hookworm larvae outside of host
Less than 6 weeks
Clinical signs and symptoms of Hookworm
Papule and erythema at site of entry ("ground itch/dew itch"), transient pulmonary sx with eosinophilia in heavy infection
Ground itch/dew itch
Caused by Hookworm and Strongyloides infections
The female of this worm type grows to 1 cm long
Hookworm
This worm secretes anticoagulant and sucks blood
Hookworm
Lifespan of Hookworms in hosts
5 years
Number of eggs produced by female Hookworm
10,000 eggs/day
Complications of hookworm
Anemia with marginal iron deficiency, mental retardation in children with chronic anemia on account of hookworm infection
Great improvement in the infection of children in rural southeastern USA by this worm has been seen over the course of the last century
Hookworm
Treatment of hookworm
Bendazole
Patients with this worm infection may require iron supplements or even transfusion
Hookworm (due to severe anemia)
Prevention of these diseases is mainly by the wearing of shoes
Hookworm, Strongyloides
This worm is notable for being able to multiply extensively in humans and produce life-threatening disease
Strongyloides
This worm has three interrelated life cycles
Strongyloides
These are the three life cycles of Strongyloides
Parasitic (hookworm-like), Free-living, Autoinfective (hyperinfection)
The eggs of this worm are laid in the host, and then hatch in the host without being excreted
Strongyloides
Duration of infection until egg-laying begins in Strongyloides
1 month
This worm burrows into small intestine mucosa and lays eggs there
Strongyloides
Diagnostic stage of Strongyloides
Larva in feces
Infective stage of Strongyloides
Larva
Infective stage of Hookworm
Larva
Hatching site of Stronglyloides
Intestine
Hatching site of Hookworm
Outside of host
Free-living larvae are seen in these two worms' lifecycles
Hookworm, Strongyloides
Newly hatched larvae of this worm are excreted in the feces
Strongyloides
The free-living forms of this worm are able to mate and lay eggs
Strongyloides (not Hookworm)
T/F: free-living, reproducing Strongyloides are able to infect hosts
False. They must differentiate into infectious larvae to infect humans
Define autoinfection in Strongyloides infection
Larvae that hatch in the host mature into infectious larvae that penetrate intestinal wall or perianal skin and eventually reach lungs via circulatory system
Infection by this worm is usually lifelong
Strongyloides (due to autoinfection)
Describe Strongyloides larva
Short buccal cavity, hour-glass shaped esophagus, genital promordium, anus
The female of this worm type grows to 2 mm long
Strongyloides
Clinical signs and symptoms of Strongyloides
Usually asymptomatic, but may include: mild cutaneous and pulmonary sx, diarrhea, nausea, abdominal pain, eosinphilia
Infection by this worm may result in a long-term (decades), low-grade infection
Strongyloides
Recurrent gram-negative bacteremia is a feature of this worm infection
Strongyloides (E.coli is carried by penetrating worm into the intestinal mucosa)
Hyperinfection may result in immunocompromised patients with this worm
Strongyloides
Complications of Strongyloides
Diarrhea, nausea, abdominal pain, pulmonary and cutaneous symptoms, hyperinfection
Features of hyperinfection seen in Strongyloides
High fever, dyspnea, gram negative septicemia
Treatment of Strongyloides
Bendazole
Geographic distribution of Stronglyoides and Hookworm
Tropical and warm temperate climates (previously including southeastern USA)
This disease is caused by infection of a human by a roundworm species that does not recognize humans as natural hosts
Larva migrans
The intestinal phase is not seen in infections with these roundworms in humans
Larva migrans
This disease is caused by an Ascaris-like intestinal round worm of dogs (or, less commonly, cats)
Visceral larva migrans
This infection is most common in children under 4 years old
Visceral larva migrans
T/F: Most visceral larva migrans infections are asymptomatic
True
This disease may mimic retinoblastoma
Retinal involvement in visceral larva migrans
Fever and hepatomegaly may be seen in this round worm infection
Visceral larva migrans
A history of pica or dog contact suggests this diagnosis
Visceral larva migrans
Liver biopsy can be diagnostic in patients with this infection
Visceral larva migrans (migrating larvae seen on bx)
Treatment of visceral larva migrans
Bendazole
Most infections by this worm are self-limiting in less than 1 year
Visceral larva migrans (larvae become enclosed in granulomata)
Prevention of visceral larva migrans
Treat dogs to eliminate their round worms, avoid dog feces
Cause of cutaneous larva migrans
Dog and cat hookworm
Cause of visceral larva migrans
Ascaris-like worm of dog (and, less commonly, cats)
This infection causes local itching and inflammatory response
Cutaneous larva migrans
Rate of movement of worms in cutaneous larva migrans
1 cm/day (or less)
Most infections by this worm are self-limiting in less than 2 months
Cutaneous larva migrans
T/F: The larval track in cutaneous larva migrans leaves a scar
True
The geographical distribution of this worm is prevalent in the southeastern USA
Cutaneous larva migrans
How is cutaneous larva migrans diagnosed?
Observation of the characteristic lesion
Treatment of cutaneous larva migrans
Bendazole
These roundworms release live larvae ("viviparous") instead of laying eggs
Trichinella, Dracunculus (guinea worm), Filarial infections (elephantiasis, river blindness, eye worm)
Transmission of this worm is from carnivore (or ominovore) to carnivore by eating skeletal muscle from the previous host
Trichinella
This infection features encysted larval progency in skeletal muscle
Trichinella
This worm is acquired by eating undercooked pork (or any other carnivore)
Trichinella
Route of invastion of Trichinella
Muscle with encysted larva is eaten, larva are released in small intestine, where they invade the mucosa and mature
Infective stage of Trichinella
Larva within meat
How long after infection by Trichinella does fertilization take place?
2 days
How long after infection by Trichinella are live larvae released?
5 days
How long does the Trichinella worm continue to release larvae?
1 month
How long do Trichinella larvae take to reach maximal size in the muscle?
3 weeks
Survival time of Trichinella larvae in smooth muscle
2 years (after which time they die and are calcified)
Diagnostic stage of Trichinella
Encysted larva in striated muscle
The diagnostic and infective stages of this worm are the same
Trichinella (encysted larva in striated muscle)
What happens to the Trichinella cyst over time?
It becomes calcified
Clinical signs and symptoms of Trichinella early on in heavy infection
Diarrhea, gastroenteritis
Cause of death in Trichinella
Migration of larvae to heart and brain
Clinical signs and symptoms of Trichinella later on in heavy infection
Eosinophilia, periorbital edema, diplopia, muscle pain, headache, fever, others (a wide array is possible)
Various serological tests support diagnosis of infection by this roundworm
Trichinella
Treatment of Trichinella
Steroids may be useful; bendazole is recommended but is not proven effective
Prevention of Trichinella
Cook meat, freeze meat (several days); at the population level, stop feeding uncooked pork scraps (via garbage) to pigs
T/F: In the US, it is illegal to throw out raw pork
True
Geographic distribution of Trichinella
Worldwide, except Australia and some Pacific Islands
Genus of roundworm that causes Guinea Worm
Dracunulus (Guinea worm)
Transmission of Guinea worm
Copepods in drinking water containing infectious larvae
Intermediate host of Dracunulus (Guinea worm)
Copepod (tiny crustacean)
The female of this worm type grows to 1 m long
Dracunulus (Guinea worm)
Diagnostic stage of Dracunulus
Larva or adulte female escaping from skin in response to submersion of ulcer in cold fresh water
Infective stage of Dracunulus
Larva (third stage larva)
Dracunulus (guinea worm) prefers to migrate in subcutaneous tissue, especially in this part of the body
Legs
Life cycle of guinea worm (Dracunulus)
Infectious larvae are ingested then penetrate the intestinal wall and enter connective tissue or body cavities where the male and female mate. The female then migrates to superficial cutaneous tissue where she gives birth to live larvae which then escape through the skin
This worm gives birth by prolapse of the uterus in response to submersion in fresh water
Dracunulus (Guinea worm)
Definitive host of guinea worm (Dracunulus)
Human
If this worm is broken during treatment, larvae are released systemically and severe inflammation can result (hypersensitivity reaction)
Dracunulus (Guinea worm)
Treatment of guinea worm (Dracunulus)
Slow extraction of worm over several weeks; surgery; bendazole
This disease remains a major problem in Sudan
Guinea worm (Dracunulus)
Clinical signs and symptoms of guinea worm (Dracunulus)
Painful lesion, frequently with secondary bacterial infection
Complications of guinea worm
Hypersensitivity reaction in response to systemic release of larvae when worm is broken
Prevention of guinea worm
Separate drinking water from bathing/washing/wading water supplies. Filter drinking water. Larvicide treatment of water.
WHO hopes to eradicate this disease in the near future
Guinea worm (Dracunulus)
Definitive host of filariases in humans
Humans
Humans harbor both the adult worms and their newborn larvae of this class of roundworm
Filariasis
Life cycle of filarial roundworms
Insect bite -> injection of mature larvae -> maturation and mating of adult worms -> female releases live first-stage larvae (MICROFILARIAE) -> mirofiliariae circulate in blood or migrate to tissue
Intermediate host of filarial roundworms
Blood-sucking insects
Diagnostic stage of filarial roundworms
Microfiliariae in blood or tissue
Where do filarial roundworms mature?
Thoracic muscles of infected insect
This worm causes elaphantiasis
Wuchereria bancrofti
This disease is caused by adult worms in the lymphatics
Elephantiasis (caused by Wuchereria)
Intermediate host of Wuchereria
Mosquito
T/F: Wuchereria microfiliariae are pathogenic
False. The adult worm, not the microfiliariae cause disease
Microfiliariae are hard to detect in chronic forms of this disease because there are not many of them
Elephantiasis (caused by Wuchereria)
Treatment of elephantiasis
Ivermectin
This disease could possibly be eradicated over the course of 5 years with universal chemotherapy
Elephantiasis (caused by Wuchereria)
Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia is a complication of infection by this worm
Wuchereria bancrofti
T/F: Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia is a common, fatal complication of Wuchereria infection
False. It is a rare (0.5%) but fatal complication
This worm can cause pulmonary infiltrates
Wuchereria bancrofti
T/F: Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia is solely caused by Wuchereria bancrofti.
False. Many types of worms can cause it, but Wuchereria is a common cause of this rare syndrome
Diagnostic stage of Wuchereria
Microfiliariae in blood
Diagnostic stage of Onchocerca (River Blindness)
Microfiliariae in skin
Geographic distribution of Wuchereria
All tropical regions
Microfilariae of this worm are harmless, but microfilariae of this worm cause disease
Wuchereria microfiliariae are harmless (the adult form causes disease when it enters the lymphatics), but Onchocerca microfiliariae cause blindness
Intermediate host of Onchocerca (River Blindness)
Black fly (genus Simulium)
This is where to find adult Onchocerca in infected humans
Subcutaneous nodule at the site of the infecting black fly bite
Clinical signs and symptoms of Onchocerca
Dermatitis with severe itching, eye lesions, eosinophilia, subcutaneous nodules
Microfilariae of this worm cause dermatitis with severe itching
Onchocerca (River Blindness)
Pathogenesis of blindness caused by Onchocerca (River blindness)
Cornea: chronic keratitis and fibrosis NEWLINE Iris: atrophy NEWLINE Retina: chorioretinitis
T/F: There is an autoimmune mechanism involved in River Blindness
True.
Geographic distribution of Onchocerca
Focal areas of tropical Africa, Central and South America
Diagnostis of this disease requires microfiliariae on a skin snip or adult worms in biopsy of nodule
Onchocerca (River Blindness)
Treatment of River Blindness (Onchocerca)
Ivermectin (once a year; it kills microfiliariae before they can do harm)
T/F: Ivermectin kills the adult and microfiliariael forms of Onchocerca
False. It is only effective against the microfiliariae.
This is the least serious of filiarial infections
Loa Loa
This worm causes symptoms due to migration of the adult worm through subcutaneous tissue
Loa Loa (Eye Worm)
T/F: Conjunctival migration is a common finding in Loa Loa (Eye worm)
False. Only 15% of travelers with Loa Loa present with conjunctival migration; most present with Calabar swellings
Chrysops is the intermediate host of this worm
Loa Loa (Eye Worm)
Intermediate host of Loa Loa
Chrysops fly
How long does it take for microfiliariae of Loa loa to mature in its host?
2 weeks
Diagnostic stage of Loa loa
Microfiliariae in blood
Infective stage of filariasis
Infective larvae transmitted from the blood-sucking fly to the human
How long does it take for Loa loa to mature once it has entered its human host
1 year
Survival time of Loa loa
Several years (10-20)
Calabar Swellings
Itchy, chicken egg-sized edematous lesion seen in Loa loa infections. Caused by migration of adults (5 cm) through a hypersensitivity mechanism
Geographic distribution of Loa loa
Tropical Africa only
Treatment of Loa loa
Surgical removal, chemotherapy (DO NOT USE IVERMECTIN)
Prevention of filiarial diseases
Avoidance of fly bites
What are the species, their vectors, and the cause of pathology in the three filarial infections?
Wuchereria - Mosquito - Adults in lymphatics NEWLINE Ochocerca - Simulium (black fly) - Microfiliariae in tissues NEWLINE Loa loa - Chrysops (fly) - Adults in tissues
Clinical signs and symptoms of Loa loa
Calabar swelling, adult migrating in conjunctiva
What are the three targets against which chemotherapeutic agents against worms are targetted?
Neural and neuromuscular transmission NEWLINE Cytoskeletal structure (esp microtubules) NEWLINE Energy metabolism
What three drugs are used to treat helminthic infections
Bendazoles, Ivermectin, Praziquantel
T/F: Bendazole is the first choice treatment for roundworm infections
False. Filarial infections do not respond to bendazoles. Most other roundworm infections do.
T/F: Filarial infections are treated with ivermectin
False. Almost all filarial infections CAN be treated with ivermectin, but Loa loa cannot.
Praziquantel is used to treat this.
All fluke and adult tape worm infections
Ivermectin is used to treat this.
Almost all filarial infections (not Loa loa)
Bendazoles are used to treat this.
Almost all roundworm infections (not filarial infections)
Metronidazole is used to treat this
Anaerobic protozoa (E. histolytica, Giardia, Trichomonas vaginalis)
Pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine is used to treat this
Toxoplasma gondii and chloroquine-resistant malaria
Bactrim is used to treat this
Pneumocystis and cyclospora
Drugs for treatment of malaria
Chloroquine, mefloquine, pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine, primaquine
These parasites are hard to treat; most of the availabe drugs are toxic.
Hemoflagellates
T/F: Most protozoa are benign
True. Most protozoa are neither pathogenic nor parasitic
T/F: Parasitic protozoa are intracellular.
False. Some parasitic protozoa are intracellular, and some multiply in extracellular fluids (eg, blood). In some species, certain stages are extracellular while others are intracellular.
How do protozoa differ from worms, pathogenically?
All protozoa that cause disease in humans must be capable of multiplying in humans (not true of worms) NEWLINE NEWLINEEosinophilia is not a usual sign of protozoal infection
Metronidazole is useful against these types of parasitic infections
Infection by anaerobic protozoa
These three protozoa are anaerobes
Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Trichomonas vaginalis
Cause of amebiasis
Entamoeba histolytica
This parasite is an extracellular protozoan that grows anaerobically
Entamoeba histolytica
The simple life cylce of this protozoa involves only humans
Entamoeba histolytica
Transmission of Entamoeba histolytica
Oral-fecal. Human ingests CYSTS (human fecal contamination)
What are the three targets against which chemotherapeutic agents against worms are targetted?
Neural and neuromuscular transmission NEWLINE Cytoskeletal structure (esp microtubules) NEWLINE Energy metabolism
What three drugs are used to treat helminthic infections
Bendazoles, Ivermectin, Praziquantel
T/F: Bendazole is the first choice treatment for roundworm infections
False. Filarial infections do not respond to bendazoles. Most other roundworm infections do.
T/F: Filarial infections are treated with ivermectin
False. Almost all filarial infections CAN be treated with ivermectin, but Loa loa cannot.
Praziquantel is used to treat this.
All fluke and adult tape worm infections
Ivermectin is used to treat this.
Almost all filarial infections (not Loa loa)
Bendazoles are used to treat this.
Almost all roundworm infections (not filarial infections)
Metronidazole is used to treat this
Anaerobic protozoa (E. histolytica, Giardia, Trichomonas vaginalis)
Pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine is used to treat this
Toxoplasma gondii and chloroquine-resistant malaria
Bactrim is used to treat this
Pneumocystis and cyclospora
Drugs for treatment of malaria
Chloroquine, mefloquine, pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine, primaquine
These parasites are hard to treat; most of the availabe drugs are toxic.
Hemoflagellates
What are the three targets against which chemotherapeutic agents against worms are targetted?
Neural and neuromuscular transmission NEWLINE Cytoskeletal structure (esp microtubules) NEWLINE Energy metabolism
What three drugs are used to treat helminthic infections
Bendazoles, Ivermectin, Praziquantel
T/F: Bendazole is the first choice treatment for roundworm infections
False. Filarial infections do not respond to bendazoles. Most other roundworm infections do.
T/F: Filarial infections are treated with ivermectin
False. Almost all filarial infections CAN be treated with ivermectin, but Loa loa cannot.
Praziquantel is used to treat this.
All fluke and adult tape worm infections
Ivermectin is used to treat this.
Almost all filarial infections (not Loa loa)
Bendazoles are used to treat this.
Almost all roundworm infections (not filarial infections)
Metronidazole is used to treat this
Anaerobic protozoa (E. histolytica, Giardia, Trichomonas vaginalis)
Pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine is used to treat this
Toxoplasma gondii and chloroquine-resistant malaria
Bactrim is used to treat this
Pneumocystis and cyclospora
Drugs for treatment of malaria
Chloroquine, mefloquine, pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine, primaquine
These parasites are hard to treat; most of the availabe drugs are toxic.
Hemoflagellates
T/F: Most protozoa are benign
True. Most protozoa are neither pathogenic nor parasitic
T/F: Parasitic protozoa are intracellular.
False. Some parasitic protozoa are intracellular, and some multiply in extracellular fluids (eg, blood). In some species, certain stages are extracellular while others are intracellular.
How do protozoa differ from worms, pathogenically?
All protozoa that cause disease in humans must be capable of multiplying in humans (not true of worms) NEWLINE NEWLINEEosinophilia is not a usual sign of protozoal infection
Metronidazole is useful against these types of parasitic infections
Infection by anaerobic protozoa
These three protozoa are anaerobes
Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Trichomonas vaginalis
Cause of amebiasis
Entamoeba histolytica
This parasite is an extracellular protozoan that grows anaerobically
Entamoeba histolytica
The simple life cylce of this protozoa involves only humans
Entamoeba histolytica
Transmission of Entamoeba histolytica
Oral-fecal. Human ingests CYSTS (human fecal contamination)