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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Why do RNA viruses exist as a swarm of non-identical but, but closely related genomes?
The RNA polymerases used by RNA viruses lack proff-reading mechanisms allowing for error-prone replication. This means there is a high rate of mutation in these viruses.
What type of genome do paramyxoviruses have?
Nonsegmented ssRNA that is antisense.
What does the nucleocapsid of a paramyxovirus contain?
1. Internal proteins
2. RNA genome
Where does transcription and replication take place for paramyxoviruses?
Why does the paramyxovirus need to use RNA polymerase in replication?
The anti-sense genome must be made into sense RNA strands. Then the sense strand can be used as a template to make anti-sense strands for progeny.
How is a new paramyxovirus made?
1. Anti-sense RNA -> Sense RNA -> Anti-sense RNA (for progeny)
2. Anti-sense RNA -> (+) mRNA for internal proteins and glycoproteins
3. Glycoproteins are run through the ER and GA and inserted in the cell membrane
4. Internal proteins interact with new anti-sense RNA to form the nucleocapsid
5. Internal proteins then interact with surface glycoproteins and bud to form a new virus
What advantage does measles have in its cell to cell transmission?
Viral fusion proteins can cause cell membranes to fuse together to form multinucleated cells called syncytia. This allows spreading of the virus without ever exposing it to extracellular antibodies.
What is the transmission process of measles and how is it different?
1. It causes viremia
2. Infection in resp. epi ->dessimination throughout body via viremia -> secondary viremia due when virus shows up in the skin and other organs
What is the prodrome for measles?
1. Cough
2. Coryza (runny nose)
3. Conjunctivitis
4. Photophobia
What are Koplik's spots? When do you see them?
1. White spots on the buccal mucosa seen in measles.
2. After the prodome symptoms
Why does a rash develop in measles?
It is due to a T Cell mediated immune response.
What are three bad complications associated with measles?
1. Pneumonia infections
2. Encephalitis
3. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (slow virus infection that damages the brain)
What kind of vaccine is used in measles prevention?
Live attenuated virus
Where does parainfluenza cause infections?
It is limited to the respiratory tract and does not cause viremia (unless severely immunocompromised).
What is parainfluenza especially associated with?
What is associated with croup?
Stridor - characteristic noise when breathing IN
Which of the four parainfluenza serotypes are most commonly associated with infection?
PIV 1, 2, 3
Is ther a vaccine available for PIV?
What measures are taken to treat croup?
1. Epinephrine to open airways
2. Decadron (steroid) to reduce inflammation
How is mumps different from paramyxovirus and parainfluenza?
It is not associated with pneumonia.
Does mumps have a viremic phase?
Mumps is classically involved with what?
Swelling of the salivary glands (parotitis).
Respiratory syncytial virus is associated with what type of infections?
Acute lower respiratory tract infections
What dieases does RSV cause in adults? In elderly/immunocompromised?
1. Community aquired pneumonia
2. Flu-like infections
RSV mainly affects what age group of people?
Infants between 2-6 months of age
Are reinfections normal for RSV?
Is there a vaccine available for RSV? What are alternative choices to vaccine?
1. No vaccine is available for RSV
2. Give the child monoclonal antibodies passively
What are two emerging paramyxoviruses?
1. Human metapneumovirus - bronchiolitis
2. Nipah virus - encephalitis