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166 Cards in this Set

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What is Diphenhydramine indicated for?
Moderate to severe allergic reactions
Anaphylaxis (to prevent any further harm)
Acute Extrapyramidal symptoms
Motion Sickness
Sleep Aid
It's Benadryl
What is an example of a natural catecholamine?
Epinephrine
What are the two main classes drugs are divided into?
Pharmacokinetics
Pharmacodynamics
One is by how drugs MOVE through the body, and
one is how the body is AFFECTED.
What does NSAIDS stand for?
NonSteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents
What are the "RIGHTS" of Medication
Right DOSE
Right PATIENT
Right ROUTE
Right MEDICATION
Right DOCUMENTATION
Right TIME
Name the side effects of ALBUTEROL?
Tachycardia, Dizziness, Dysrhythmias, Dry Mouth
On a Pulse Oximeter, what is considered MODERATE HYPOXIA?
A reading on a Pulse Oximeter of 85 - 90
What is the ACTION of Epinephrine?
"Brochodialator, Vasoconstrictor
What are the SIDE EFFECTS of Epinephrine?
Tachycardia, Angina, Headache, Restlessness, Dysrhythmias
Name some examples of ENTERAL routes of medication.
"Oral, Sublingual, Rectal
Name some examples of PARENTAL routes of medication.
Intravenous, Intramuscular, Subcutaneous (SubQ), Intraosseous, or Intrademal
Any route NOT involving the GI tract
What class of AntiDysrhythmics SLOW DOWN the heart?
Class I of AntiDysrhythmics do this.
INOTROPIC affects what part of the heart?
The heart's CONTRACTILITY (or POWER) is effected by this action.
If a drug is said to have "Chronotropic effect" on the heart, what is it referring to?
This effect is referring to the heart's time or order of the beats.
These two classes of Antihypertensives drugs work directly on the heart.
"Calcium Channel Blocking Agents
These two classes of Antihypertensives drugs work directly on the circulatory system
"Direct Vasodilators
What does a Loop AntiHypertensive/Diuretic?
This drug pulls the excess fluid from the body's circulatory system so the heart can have more power to pump.
Airway resistance  
Resistance of the flow of air in the lungs, created by the bronchioles  
An abnormal dilation of a blood vessel, usually an artery; due to a congenital defect or weakness in the wall of the vessel  
Aneurysm  
Severe chest pain caused by relative deficiency of O2 supply to heart muscle. Manifestation of myocardial ischemia. S/S include: steady severe pain in heart region; pale ashen or livid face; pulse variable; usually quick & tense. Attacks last ~30 min  
Angina  
Used to control or prevent irregular cardiac rhythms  
Antiarrhythmic medications  
Delays of prevents blood coagulation. Pts on this medication bleed easily. Caution must be taken with shaking, percussion & handling  
Anticoagulants  
Irregular heart beats  
Arrhythmias  
Deposits of cholesterol. Causes narrowing of the arteries, compromising the inner layers of blood vessels  
Atherosclerosis  
The arterial walls thicken and lose their elasticity. Commonly called "hardening of the arteries"  
Arteriosclerosis  
An obstructive airway disorder common in young children that can be exacerbated by the presence of specific allergens  
Asthma  
Collapse of one or more lobes of the lung  

A respiratory stimulant used to decrease spasms of involuntary muscles and decrease secretions  
Atropine  
Use of a stethescope to listen to the sounds of the heart and lungs. Utilized to assess abnormal respiratory sounds, and to measure a patient’s BP  
Auscultation  
Medications used to decrease HR, BP, contraction and stroke volume of heart & decrease O2 demands. Agents are utilized to treat: hypertension, angina, specific cardiac arrhythmias; post myocardial infarctions  
Beta-blockers  
A slow heartbeat characterized by a pulse rate of below 60 beats per minute  
Bradycardia  
Abnormally slow breathing  
Bradypnea  
Chronic dilation of a bronchus or bronchi, with secondary infection usually involving the lower portion of the lung  
Bronchiectasis  
An obstructive lung disorder resulting in inflammation of the mucus membrane of the bronchial airways, results in a productive cough  
Bronchitis  
Usually an inhaled medication to relax smooth muscles (bronchial), and open the airways  
Bronchodilators  
Medications used to increase contractility of the heart and decrease the heart rate  
Cardiac glycosides  
The amount of blood discharged from the left or right ventricle per minute. _____________ is determined by multiplying the stroke volume by the heart rate  
Cardiac output  
Enlargement of the heart  
Cardiomegaly  
The process of ventilating and circulating blood for a patient in cardiopulmonary arrest  
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)  
A pattern of breathing common in severe head injuries or patients about to expire. There is an increase in inspiration followed by a series of gradually decreasing tidal volumes with a period of apnea  
Cheyne-Stokes respirations  
Degeneration of the elastic quality of the valve tissue, poor venous dilation, and muscle pump dysfunction. Lower extremity hyperextension and fluid retention  
Chronic venous insufficiency  
Any respiratory condition characterized by chronic abnormal expiratory flow rates. Decrease in the lungs ability to perform ventilation  
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)  
A condition that affects the toes, fingers and the tips of the fingers. They take on a bulbous appearance due to chronic hypoxia  
Clubbing  
A cogenital heart defect resulting in narrowing of the aorta beyond the origin of the arteries that supply the extremities  
Coarctation of the aorta  
A condition in which the heart is unable to adequately circulate blood resulting in edema  
Congestive heart failure (CHF)  
Right ventricular failure due to chronic respiratory problems  
Cor pulmonale  
Medication used to reduce edema and inflammation in the tissue  
Corticosteroids  
The easiest method of clearing the airway and removing excess secretions. The rectus abdominis is the primary muscle utilized to produce __________  
Coughing  
Bluish tinge to the skin from decreased oxygen and an increase of carbon dioxide in the blood  
Cyanosis  
An obstructive lung disorder that is genetically based resulting in dysfunction of the exocrine glands. Leads to chronic lung infections and pancreatic dysfunction  
Cystic fibrosis  
An overall decrease in fitness level due to prolonged bed rest or inactivity and may be accompanied by orthostatic hypotension  
Deconditioning  
An inflammation of a vein with the formation of a thrombus, may be life threatening  
Deep vein thrombosus (DVT)  
Excessive sweating  
Diaphoresis  
Type of breathing pattern used to improve gas exchange & increase lung volume. The patient is semi-reclined, during exhalation, gentle pressure is applied changing to firm pressure at end of exhalation. During inhalation, resistance is applied by PT  
Diaphragmatic breathing  
Decreased ability to breathe with ease, at rest or with exertion. Amount measured on a scale of +1 to +4; +1 is mild that is noticeable to the pt. only, +4 is severe difficulty with breathing & pt. cannot continue the activity  
Dyspnea  
A blood clot that forms in one part of the body and travels to another part. The clot commonly travels to the heart or the lung obstructing an artery, can be life threatening  
Embolism  
Thick, colored, malodorous, often frothy production of sputum from the lungs of patients with COPD. Laboratory analysis and the characteristics often aid in the diagnosis of, and classifying the severity of the disease  
Expectorant  
Rank or foul smelling. Sputum that usually occurs with cystic fibrosis or lung abcesses is described as ___________  
Fetid  
The amount of air that can be forcefully expelled following a maximal inspiration  
Forced vital capacity (FVC)  
Extra heart sounds often associated with congestive heart failure. There are three sounds in each cycle. The sound resembles the galloping of a horse  
Gallop rhythm (murmurs)  
A partial or complete interference of the conduction of electrical impulses from the atria to the ventricles. Alters the rhythm of the heartbeat, known as arrhythmia  
Heart block  
Blood-tinged sputum, arising form the oral cavity, larynx, trachea, bronchi, or the lungs  
Hemoptysis  
Blood in the pleural cavity caused by a rupture of blood vessels resulting from inflammtion of the lungs in pneumonia or pulmonary tuberculosis  
Hemothorax  
A respiratory exercise used to increase maximal expiration without increasing intrathoracic pressure. The patient will produce a sound similar to "Ha,Ha,Ha" during expiration  
Huffing  
Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the blood  
Hypercapnia  
Decreased oxygen concentration in the blood, measured by arterial oxygen parital pressure (PaO2) values  
Hypoxemia  
An oxygen deficiency, a decreased concentration of oxygen in the inspired air  
Hypoxia  
Insertion of a tube through the nose or mouth into the trachea to maintain the airway  
Intubation (endothracheal)  
A temporary lack of blood supply due to an obstruction of the circulation to the part. Lack of blood supply to the heart leads to angina pectoris  
Ischemia  
The removal of one or more lobes of the lung  
Lobectomy  
Accumulation of fluid due to an obstruction of the lymphatic system. Results in swelling of the extremities  
Lymphatic disease (lymphedema)  
The maximal amount of air exchanged in the lungs per unit ot time  
Maximal aerobic power (max VO2)  
The difference between the resting and the maximal heart rate  
Maximal heart rate reserve (HRR)  
the amount of air exchanged into the lungs in one minute  
Maximum minute ventilation (VeMax)  
The amount of oxygen the body utilizes while the patient is at rest  
Metabolic energy expenditure (MET)  
White or clear sputum that can be present with a chronic cough for pulmonary disorders like bronchitis or cystic fibrosis  
Mucoid  
Death of a tissue surrounded by healthy tissue, resulting from ischemia  
Necrosis (ischemic)  
Respiratory condition in which the patient has difficulty breathing in any position but an erect sitting or standing position  
Orthopnea  
A decrease of systolic and diastolic blood pressure with positional changes. Occurs when a person assumes an upright position from a supine position. Usually exacerbated after prolonged bed rest  
Orthostatic hypotension  
Partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the arterial blood. Measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg)  
PaCO2  
A forceful, rhythmical pattern applied to the chest wall of a patient, performed by cupping the hands or with a mechanical device. Assists in loosening of secretions and aids in the process of removal  
Percussion  
The membranous fibroserous sac enclosing the heart and the bases of the great vessels  
Pericardium  
Supplying of an organ or tissue with nutrients and oxygen by injecting blood or other suitable fluid into an artery  
Perfusion  
A serous membrane that surrounds both lungs and is replicated upon the walls of the thorax and diaphragm. Secretions assist with decreasing the resistance during respiratory movement  
Pleura  
Fluid in the thoracic cavity between the visceral and parietal pleura  
Pleural effusion  
An inflammation of the alveoli, interstitial tissue, and bronchioles of the lungs due to an infection caused by bacteria, viruses, or other pathogenic organisms, or to irritation by chemicals or other agents (eg, oil, radiation, drugs)  
Pneumonia  
Air or gas in the pleural cavity that can cause a collapse of the lung if not treated  
Pneumothorax  
The positioning of a patient so that the involved lung segments are perpendicular to the ground thereby using gravity to assist in removal of excess secretions  
Postural drainage  
Effusion of serous fluid into the alveoli and interstitial tissue of the lungs. Caused by a weakening or failure of the left ventricle, which allows blood to back up and increase pressure in the pulmonary capillaries. Is life threatening  
Pulmonary edema  
Type of breathing-enables person with COPD to exhale passively by increasing intrabronchial pressured air out of lungs with assistance-they cannot do it with their lung capacity. The maneuver alters air flow rate & prevents bronchial collapse  
Pursed lip breathing (gently blowing out candles)  
Adventitious lung sounds heard on ausculation of the chest. Produced by air passing over retained airway secretions or sudden opening of collapsed airways. Diseases such as chronic bronchitis, heard primarily on inspiration  
Rales or crackles  
The amount of red blood cells present in the blood can determine how well the body is transporting oxygen to the heart and lungs  
Red blood cells (RBC)  
An adventitious sound heard during auscultaion as the person breathes. Wheezes are usually heard with expiration. Occurs when the airway is partially blocked due to secretions, mucosal swelling, or tumor tissue pressing on the passage.  
Rhonchi or wheezing  
A high pitched, harsh sound heard during respiration. Resembling the sound of blowing wind due to an obstruction of the upper airway  
Stridor  
The amount of blood ejected from the left ventricel with each heartbeat  
Stroke volume  
An increased heart rate. Adults would be > 100 beats/minute  
Tachycardia  
An increased respiratory rate  
Tachypnea  
A pre-selected heart rate determined to be within safe exercise limits for an individual patient  
Target heart rate  
Surgical incision of the chest wall  
Thoracotomy  
The formation, development, or existence of a blood clot within the vascular system. Is a life-threatening event  
Thrombosis  
A position in which the patient’s head is low and the body and legs are on an elevated and inclined plane. Utilized during postural drainage. The head of the bed is tipped down 15 to 18 degrees  
Trendelenburg position  
Medications that cause dilation of the blood vessels  
Vasodilators  
buccal  
drugs administered against the mucous membranes of the cheek in either the upper or lower jaw.  
extravasation  
refers to the escape of fluid from a blood vessel into surrounding tissues while the needle or catheter is in the vein.  
infiltration  
is the collection of fluid into tissues when the needle or catheter is out of the vein.  
inhalation  
the process of administering drugs by inhaling them. (exanmples: bronchodialators, antiinflammatory drugs.)  
intradermal  
drugs administered in the dermal layer of the skin.  
intramuscular  
drugs administered by giving them into the muscle.  
intravenous  
drugs administered directly into the vein.  
drug errors  
can be defined as any occurrence that can cause a patient to receive the wrong dose, wrong drug, an incorrect dosage, wrong route, or a drug given at the incorrect time.  
Subcutaneous  
Drugs administered in the subcutaneous layer or the fatty layer.  
sublingual  
drugs given by placing them under the tongue.  
transdermal  
The route used for the drug to be absorbed through the skin.  
universal precautions  
precautions used to protect the patient and staff when coming in contact with blood or body fluids.  
amp  
ampule  
bid  
twice a day  
cc  
cubic centimeter  
cm  
centimeter  
D5W  
5% dextrose and water  
DC, disc, d/c  
discontinue  
dl, dL  
deciliter  
fl, fld  
fluid  
Gm, g, gm  
gram  
gtt  
drops  
h, hr  
hour  
ID  
intradermal  
IM  
intramuscular  
IV  
intravenous  
kg  
kilogram  
L, l  
liter  
lb  
pound  
mcg  
microgram  
mEq  
milliequivalent  
mg  
milligram  
ml  
milliliter  
MOM  
Milk of Magnesia  
MS  
morphine sulfate  
NaCl  
sodium chloride  
NKA  
no known allergies  
NKDA  
no known drug allergies  
noc  
at night  
NPO  
nothing by mouth  
NS  
normal saline  
os  
mouth  
p  
after  
po, PO  
by mouth  
q  
every  
q2h  
every 2 hours  
q3h  
every 3 hours  
qam  
every morning  
qd  
everyday  
qh  
every hour  
qid  
four times a day  
qod  
every other day  
SC, subq  
subcutaneous  
SC, Sub-Q, S-Q  
subcutaneously  
SL  
sublingual  
stat, STAT  
immediately  
Supp  
suppository  
tid  
three times a day  
What is an Antipyretic?
This is a fever reducer.
Substance that decreases blood glucose levels.
Insulin
Substance that increases blood glucose levels.
Glucagon
What is the abbreviation CRTZ stand for and what is it?
"ChemoReceptor Trigger Zone"
The zone which stimulates vomiting in response to serotonin receptors in the stomach and blood-borne substances such as opioids & ipecac.
Protamine
Drug used to reverse the effects of Heparin when unintended bleeding is present.
Coumadin
Also called Wararin. Drug that prevents coagulation by antagonizing the effcts of Vitamin K