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14 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are 8 common parallel structure used on the GMAT?
1. noun
2. adjective
3. modifying noun
4. verb
5. verb infinitive
6. participle phrases
7. adverb
8. adverbial phrases.
Give an example of a noun parallel sentence.
Trevor collects stamps, coins, and cards.
Give an example of a adjective parallel sentence.
The wait staff was prompt¸ friendly, and competent.
Give an example of a modified noun parallel sentence.
A positive attitude can leave to both practical success and spiritual fulfillment.
Give an example of a verb parallel sentence.
We worked all day, ate all evening, and slept all night.
Give an example of a verb infinitive parallel sentence.
I decided to swim across the river rather than sail around the world. (The second to is optional).
Give an example of a participal infinitive parallel sentence.
The rain continued to fall, providing water for the thirsty plants but flooding the streets as well.
Give an example of a adverb parallel sentence.
I’ve noticed that you often how angrily after you cower fearfully.
Give an example of an adverbial phrase parallel sentence
I’ve noticed that you often howl in anger after you cower in fear.
True or false relative pronouns often signal parallel sentence construction.
True.

• Often pronouns – such as which, that, those, who etc. – signal parallel structures. If one item includes a pronoun, it is often appropriate to include the same pronoun in parallel items.

• I prefer to hire employees WHO work hard to those THAT don’t. (Incorrect)
• I prefer to hire employees WHO work hard to those WHO don’t. (Correct)
• Ralph likes a variety of people, including THOSE WHO are popular and WHO are not. (Incorrect)
• Ralph likes a variety of people, including THOSE WHO are popular and THOSE WHO are not. (Correct)
True or false.

X and Y must be parallel in structure but NOT meaning.
False

X and Y must be parallel in BOTH structure AND meaning.

I definitely prefer eating ice cream in the summertime to hot dogs. (Incorrect)

I definitely prefer eating ice cream to eating hot dogs in the summertime. (Correct)
List 17 parallel idioms.
1. More X than Y
2. The more X the greater Y
3. No less was X than was Y
4. As X to Y
5. Not only X but also Y
6. Not X but rather Y
7. X instead of Y
8. The same to X as to Y
9. Range from X to Y
10. Both X and Y
11. Either X or Y
12. Neither X nor Y
13. Mistake X for Y
14. Prefer X to Y
15. X regarded as Y
16. To think of X as Y
17. Believe X to be Y
What is superficial parallelism?
Superficial parallelism is a sentence that may appear to need parallel construction but the way the sentence is worded does not need parallel structure.

Example.

• Ken traveled around the world, visiting historic sites, eating native foods, and learning about new cultures. (Correct)

The verb phrases visiting historic sites, eating native foods and learning about new cultures are parallel. The main clause, traveled around the world, is not parallel to these verb phrases. This is NOT incorrect. Traveled is the main verb, and the other verb phrases provide additional information about what Ken did while traveling. It would distort the meaning of the sentence to change it.

• Ken traveled around the world, visited historic sites, ate native foods and learned about new cultures. (Incorrect)

This version gives all the activities equal emphasis, instead of making the last three activities subordinate to the main activity to the main activity of traveling around the world.
True or false you must be on the watch out for "to be" verbs?
True.

• When you see a form of the verb to be (or any other verb of being), be sure that the two sides of the verb are parallel.

To Be Other Verbs of Being or Condition
Is Appear Seem
Am Become Smell
Are Feel Sound
Was Grow Stay
Were Look Taste
Been Remain Turn
Being


• The flower bouquet WAS the husband’s giving of love to his wife. (Incorrect)
• The flower bouquet WAS the husband’s giving loving gift to his wife. (Correct)

The two sides of the being verb was are flower bouquet and husband’s giving of love. These two sides are not structurally parallel. In order to achieve parallelism, we can rewrite the sentence replacing giving with the noun gift, so that gift, so that the two sides of the being are structurally similar.