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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How do different papillomaviruses target different tissues?
Different viral genotypes are tropic for specific body sites.
What percentage of women have been exposed to various HPVs in their genitial mucosa?
Are papillomavirus relatively successful in evading clearance by the immune system?
Yes they are relatively successful.
Can the primary HPV infection be latent?
What usually brings HPV out of latency?
1. Things that promote immunosuppression
2. Tissue wounding
Infections with high risk HPV viruses lead to what?
1. Dysplasia
2. Carcinoma
Are there any drugs that are effective at inhibiting HPV replication?
What type of genome does HPV virus have?
Where are the transcription enhancer and the promoter for HPV located?
Upstream Regulatory Region (URR)
What is the function of E6?
Targets p53 for degradation via the 26s proteasome.
What is the function of E7?
Targets Rb for inactivation preventing it from interacting with E2F.
Which viral genes are important for regulating viral replication?
1. E1
2. E2
3. E4
4. E5
What is the function of E2?
It targets the URR and recruits E1 to the DNA enhancing replication.
What is the function of E1?
Recruited by E2, it enhances viral genome replication.
What happens with very high levels of E2?
Inhibits the binding of E1 and inhibits the replication of the viral genome.
What forms the icosohedral capsid of HPV?
1. L1 - major capsid protein
2. L2 - minor capsid protein
What cell type does HPV target initially?
Basal cells in epithelium
What is needed to allow the virus to initally infect?
Insult to the epithelial basal cells.
What form is E2 in when it binds to DNA?
It is in a dimer.
What enzymatic function does E1 have?
It has helicase function.
Do you get many copies of HPV due to infection of basal cells?
No each cell divides and there is one copy of HPV in each. It is a slow process.
Which viral products are expressed heavily early on in the infection process?
At the basal level of the epithelium E6 and E7 are more heavily expressed.
Which viral products are expressed as the level of infected cells moves up the stratum of the epithelium?
As you move up the stratum, more products invovled in replication (E1 E2 E4 E5) are seen.
What adenovirus viral products serve the same functions as E6 and E7?
E1a and E1b
What viral product in polyomavirus serves the same funtion as E7 and E6 in HPV?
T antigen
What does E2F recruit when it is not being inhibited by Rb? What blocks inhibition due to Rb?
1. Histone acetyltransferases
2. E7
What other molecule must E6 fight with in controling the cell cycle?
Why does the HPV not want to transform the cells that it has infected?
If the cell becomes transformed it can no longer reproduce the virus.
What are alpha papillomaviruses trophic for?
Muscosa of the anogenital tract
Which HPV are associated with common warts?
HPV 1-4
What HPV is called meathandler's warts?
Which HPV types causes epidermodysplasia verruciformis?
HPV 5 and 8
Which HPV types are probably associated with squamous cell carcinoma?
HPV 5, 8 and 16
Which two HPVs are responsible for more than 70% of the infections that lead to cancer?
HPV 16 and 18
What is a way to grade cervical cancer?
Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia scale 1-3
What happens when the virus is integrated into the host's genome?
The virus loses the genes that regulate replication so they may no longer replicate.
What does the histology eventually look like when infected with HPV?
Eventually the epidermis is dominated with transformed basal cells that can break through the basal epithelium and metastasize.
In CIN 3 what viral gene product dominates the whole epithelium?
How is E2 releated to E6 and E7 and why would this matter in viral integration?
1. E2 helps regulate E6 and E7 levels via feedback
2. Upon integration, E2 is lost so E6 and E7 is unchecked
Which HPVs cause genital warts?
HPV-6 and HPV-11
What is the problem with HPV and pregnant women?
They can transmit the HPV-6 and HPV-11 to their baby which manifests in the form of Recurrent Respiratory Papilloma.
What is the only way to correct RRP?
What are some drugs that can be used to treat the RRP?
1. Acutane
2. Interferons
3. Aldara
4. Vaccines
What is a HPV vaccine made out of?
Viral capsids (L1) no DNA
Which viral forms are included in the new prophylactic vaccines?
1. HPV-6
2. HPV-11
3. HPV-16
4. HPV-18