Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/36

Click to flip

36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Autoimmune pancreatitis is also known by what other name?
Lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis
What autoimmune diseases are associated with lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis?
Ulcerative colitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, Sjogren's syndrome
Do the osteoclast-like giant cells in undifferentiated carcinoma wiht osteolcast-like giant cells stain with keratin?
No. They are CD68 positive and not tumor cells.
____ are to CEA
as
Pseudocysts are to _____
Mucinous cysts are to CEA
as
Pseudocysts are to lipase and amylase
This tumor is commonly found in young women, lacks CEA in cyst fluid, grossly characterized by solid and cystic components. 10-15% present with liver metastasis.
Solid pseudopapillary
Solid pseudopapillary IHC:
PR
CD56
CD10
alpha-1-antitrypsin
NSE
beta-catenin
Keritins
Chromogranin
Solid pseudopapillary IHC:
PR +
CD56 +
CD10 +
alpha-1-antitrypsin +
NSE +
beta-catenin + (nuclear)
Keritins - (or focal weak)
Chromogranin -
This tumor may present clinically as skin rash, normochromic/normocytic anemia, glossitis, stomatitis, mild diabetes mellitus.
Glucagonoma
This tumor may present with multiple gastric and/or duodenal ulcers.
Gastrinoma (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome)
This tumor presents with severe watery diarrhea with hypokalemia and achlorhydria.
VIPoma
Insulinoma is to small and without metastasis
as
____ is to larger (mean 7.5 cm) size with metastasis (70%) at time of diagnosis
Glucagonoma
What two factors are most important in predicting tumor aggressiveness in pancreatic endocrine tumors?
necrosis, mitosis
Low-grade pancreatic endocrine tumors have ____ and ____ mitosis ___.
Low-grade pancreatic endocrine tumors have NO NECROSIS and LESS THAN 2/50 mitosis PER HPF.
Intermediate-grade pancreatic endocrine tumors have ___ and ___ mitosis ___.
Intermediate-grade pancreatic endocrine tumors have NECROSIS and OVER 2/50 mitosis PER HPF.
This pancreatic tumor may present with multiple skin nodules showing fat necrosis on biopsy and polyarthralgia. Liver metastasis is often present at diagnosis.
Acinar cell carcinoma. The fat necrosis is due to lipase and polyarthralgia is doe to protease.
Mutation in this protooncogene is seen in over 90% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
KRAS
This pancreatic tumor has a bimodal distribution of ages (peaks at 4 and 30), is more common in Asians, may be associated with increased AFP, may rarely be associated with BWS or FAP, and unlike other childhood tumors, the cure is fairly low with 5-year survival under 25%.
pancreatoblastoma
20% of this lesion is associated with mutation in codon 12 of Kras.
PanIN
Duodenal adenocarcinoma:
CK20
CDX2
MUC1
MUC2
MUC5AC
Duodenal adenocarcinoma:
CK20 +
CDX2 +
MUC1 -
MUC2 +
MUC5AC -
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma:
CK20
CDX2
MUC1
MUC2
MUC5AC
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma:
CK20 -
CDX2 -
MUC1 +
MUC2 -
MUC5AC +
What is the 5-year survival of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma?
Less than 5%
How many Americans die of pancreatic cancer per year?
30,000
Pancreatic carcinoma is the ___ leading cause of cancer death in America.
4th
What percent of pancreatic adenocarcinoma is related to BRCA mutation?
7%
The ovarian stroma of MCN stains muscle markers?
Yes (actin, desmin). Of course ER/PR are positive as well.
This pancreatic tumor tends to involve perimenopausal women (mean age 48), is in the body/tail, with 20-30% associated with carcinoma (20% invasive). A coexisting ovarian tumor is very uncommon, and should raise the possibility of metastasis to the ovary.
MCN
Are serous cystadenoma PAS positive?
Yes (glycogen)
Most common site for heterotopic pancreas.
stomach
What is nesidioblastosis?
Persistent hyperinsulinemia causing hypoglycemia due to disproportionally large number of beta-cells in islets of Langerhans in large-for-gestational-age babies of diabetic moms.
This disease is associated with morphological changes in the islets of Langerhans including a decrease in the number and size of islets, enlargement of nuclei with irregularities and hyperchromasia. Other changes include per-insular and intrainsular lymphocytic infiltration and mild acinar atrophy.
type 1 diabetes mellitus
This disease is associated with amyloid deposits in the islets of Langerhans.
type 2 diabetes mellitus
Cystic fibrosis is due to mutation in what gene on what chromosome?
CFTR on chromosome 7
What percentage of people with CF have pancreatic insufficiency?
85-90%
What is the most common lethal inherited disorder among whites?
CF
Histological changes in the pancreas found in this disease include hyperviscous secretions precipitating in the ducts and leading to obstruction-related chronic pancreatitis, including fibrosis, acinar atrophy and ductectasia.
CF
Histological changes in this disease include mononuclear cells admixed with eosiniophils involving the interstitial tissue, lymphocytes involving hte vascualr walls, especially localizing in the subendothelial space and uplifting hte endothelium, some mononuclear cells involving the acinar and ductal epithelium with sparing of the islets.
Acute rejection
Hereditary pancreatitis is autosomal ____ and caused my mutations in ___ and ___.
Hereditary pancreatitis is autosomal DOMINANT and caused my mutations in PRSS1 (CATIONIC TRYPSINOGEN GENE) and SPINK1 (SERINE PROTEASE INHIBITOR, KAZAL TYPE 1).