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116 Cards in this Set

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Ranson's criteria for acute pancreatitis on admission (GA LAW)
Glucose >200
Age >55
LDH >350
AST >250
WBC >16,000
Ranson's criteria for acute pancreatitis after 48 hours (C HOBBS)
Calcium <8.0mg/dl
Hematocrit decreased by >10%
PaO2 <60 mmHg
Base excess >4 mEq/L
BUN increased by >5 mg/dl
Sequestered fluid >6L
Criteria for predicting mortality associated with acute pancreatitis
Ranson's criteria
Ranson's criteria risk percentage for mortality
20% with 3-4 signs
40% with 5-6 signs
100% with >7 signs
Courvoisier's sign
Palpable, nontender gallbladder, a sign of pancreatitis
3 most common pathogens of infectious esophagitis
Candida albicans, CMV, and HSV
Oropharyngeal dysphagia: does it involve liquids or solids more?
Liquids
Obstructive esophageal dysphagia: does it involve liquids or solids more?
Solids
Esophageal motility disorders (name some)
Achalasia, scleroderma, and esophageal spasm
Barium swallow shows a corkscrew-shaped esophagus
Diffuse esophageal spasm
Impaired relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter, loss of peristalsis in the lower 2/3 of the esophagus
Achalasia
Barium swallow shows esophageal dilation with a "bird's beak" tapering of the distal esophagus
Achalasia
Treatment for achalasia
Nitrates, CCBs, or endoscopic injection of botox into the LES for short-term relief. Pneumatic dilation or surgical myotomy for long-term relief
2 most common types of esophageal cancer
Squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma
Risk factors of esophageal cancer
Alcohol use, male gender, smoking, and age >50
Symptomatic reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus, most commonly as a result of transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation
GERD
BARRett's esophagus
Becomes
Adenocarcinoma,
Results from
Reflux
The gastroesophageal junction and a portion of the stomach displaced above the diaphragm
Sliding hiatal hernia
Treatment for gastritis
Stop offending agents. Antacids, sucralfate, H2 blockers, and/or PPIs.
H. pylori treatment
Triple therapy with amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and omeprazole
triple therapy
Abdominal pain, early satiety, and weight loss
Gastric cancer. Usually presents with an advanced case, and has a 5-year survival of <10%
Risk factors for gastric cancer
Diet high in nitrites and salt and low in fresh vegetables (antioxidants), H. pylori colonization, and chronic gastritis
Risk factors for peptic ulcer disease
H. pylori infection, corticosteroid use, NSAIDs, alcohol, and tobacco. Males > females
Chronic or periodic dull, burning epigastric pain that improves with meals, worsens 2-3 hours after eating, and can radiate to the back
Peptic ulcer disease
Diagnostic study to evaluate for perforated peptic ulcer
Abdominal X-ray (free air under the diaphragm). CBC to assess for GI bleed (decreased hematocrit)
How do you rule out Zollinger-Ellison syndrome in patients with GERD or PUD that are refractory to medical management
Serum gastrin levels
Gastrin-producing tumors in the duodenum and/or pancrease
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
Complications of peptic ulcer disease (acronym HOPI)
Hemorrhage
Obstruction
Perforation
Intractable pain
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is associated with what type of multiple endocrine neoplasia?
MEN I
Gnawing, burning abdominal pain with diarrhea, N/V, fatigue, weight loss, GI bleed, all of which is recurrent and unresponsive to treatment?
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
Common cause of pediatric diarrhea
Rotavirus infection
Most common etiology of infectious diarrhea.
Campylobacter
Diarrhea that results from recent treatment with antibiotics (penicillins, cephalosporins, and clindamycin)
Clostridium difficile
Complication of clostridium difficile
Toxic megacolon
Treatment for C-diff
Stop inciting antibiotic. PO metronidazole or vancomycin. If the pt can't tolerate oral medication, then IV metronidazole
Treatment for campylobacter associated diarrhea
Erythromycin
When does acute diarrhea require laboratory testing?
If the patient has a high fever, bloody diarrhea, or diarrhea lasting >4-5 days
Laboratory studies for acute diarrhea
Send stool for fecal leucocytes, bacterial culture,, C-diff toxin, and ova and parasites
Cause of pseudomembranous colitis
Clostridium difficile
Complication of entamoeba histolytica with administered steroids
Can lead to fatal perforation
Treatment for children with diarrhea who cannot take medication or PO fluids
Hospitalize, give IV fluids, and treat the underlying cause
Treatment for patients with celiac sprue
Gluten-free diet
Abdominal bloating, flatulence, cramping, and watery diarrhea following milk ingestion
Lactose intolerance (results from a deficiency of lactase)
Idiopathic bowel function disorder characterized by abdominal pain and changes in bowel habits that increase with stress and are relieved by bowel movements
Irritable bowel syndrome
A patient presents with abdominal pain, change in bowel habits (diarrhea or constipation), abdominal distention, stools with mucus, and pain relief with bowel movement. What diagnostic studies should be done?
CBC, TSH, electrolytes, stool cultures, abdominal films, and barium contrast studies. Also, take a good history to determine the cause. The diagnosis of exclusion would be IBS.
Dietary treatment for IBS
Fiber supplements
Pharmocologic treatment for IBS
TCAs, antidiarrheals (loperamide), antispasmodics (dicyclomine such as Bentyl, anticholinergics), or tegaserod (for those with constipation-predominant IBS)
Most common cause of small bowel obstruction in adults
Adhesions from a prior abdominal surgery
Leading cause of small bowel obstruction in children
Hernias
Abdominal films show a stepladder pattern of dilated small bowel loops and air-fluid levels
Small bowel obstruction
Abdominal X-ray shows radiopaque material at the cecum
Gallstone ileus
The presence of lactic acidosis in small bowel obstruction indicates...
Necrotic bowel: a surgical emergency
Loss of bowel peristalsis without structural obstruction
Ileus
Abdominal X-ray shows distended loops of small and large bowel on supine x-ray and air-fluid levels on upright view
Ileus
What effect do anticholinergics, opioids, and hypokalemia have on GI motility?
They slow GI motility
Most common cause of acute GI bleeding in patients >40
Diverticulosis
Risk factors for diverticulosis
Low fiber, high fat diet, advanced age, and connective tissue disorders
Lower left quadrant pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, and constipation is likely...
Diverticulitis
Treatment of uncomplicated diverticular disease
High fiber diet or fiber supplements
Treatment for diverticulitis
Bowel rest (NPO), NG tube, broad-spectrum antibiotics (metronidazole and a fluoroquinolone or a 2nd or 3rd generation cephalosporin) if the pt is stable. Avoid barium enema and flexible sigmoidoscopy.
A patient has a large bowel obstruction. What should be assumed until proven otherwise?
Colon cancer
Barium enema study shows "bird beak" sign
Large bowel obstruction
Barium enema X-ray shows an "apple-core" filling defect in the descending colon
Colon carcinoma
GI manifestation of scleroderma (CREST syndrome)
Esophageal dysmotility. May be the presenting complaint leading to the diagnosis of scleroderma
Lower weblike constriction located at the squamocolumnar mucosal junction of the esophagus
Schatzki's ring. Associated with GERD.
Esophageal diverticula
Zenker's diverticulum
Gradual onset dysphagia, spontaneous regurgitation of undigested food, halitosis, neck mass on physical exam
Zenker's diverticulum
Dilated submucosal veins in the esophagus secondary to portal hypertension, seen in half of patients with cirrhosis
Esophageal varices
Management of esophageal varices
Endoscopic evaluation with therapeutic banding or sclerotherapy of varix. If hemorrhage is too vigorous, balloon tube tamponade. Vasoconstrictive drugs (vasopressin, somatostatin).
Superficial mucosal tear at the gastroesophageal junction
Mallory-Weiss Tear
Pharmacologic treatment of choice for peptic ulcer disease
PPIs
Iron deficiency anemia in an elderly male
Colorectal cancer until proven otherwise
Tumor marker in colorectal cancer, used to monitor recurrence
CEA
Type of inflammatory bowel disease in which the rectum is always involved
Ulcerative colitis
Type of IBD that may involve any portion of the GI tract
Crohn's disease
Colonoscopy reveals aphthoid, linear, or stellate ulcers, strictures, "cobblestoning", and "skip lesions"
Crohn's disease
Test to make a definitive diagnosis of either type of inflammatory bowel disease
Biopsy
Pharmacologic treatment for inflammatory bowel disease
5-ASA agents (sulfasalazine, mesalamine), corticosteroids and immunomodulating agents (azathioprine, infliximab) if no improvement
Curative treatment for long-standing ulcerative colitis or toxic megacolon
Total colectomy
Which has a higher risk of colon cancer: ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease?
Ulcerative colitis
What are the structures that comprise Hasselbach's triangle?
Inguinal ligament, inferior gastric artery, and the rectus abdominis
Herniation of abdominal contents through the floor of Hasselbach's triangle
Direct inguinal hernia
Herniation of abdominal contents through the internal and then external inguinal rings and eventually into the scrotum (in males)
Indirect inguinal hernia
The most common hernia in both genders
Indirect inguinal hernia.
Etiology of indirect inguinal hernia
Congenital patent processus vaginalis
Risk factors for cholelithiasis
4 F's: female, fat, fertile, forty (however it is common and can occur in any patient)
Also OCPs, rapid weight loss, positive family history, chronic hemolysis, small bowel resection, and TPN
Postprandial RUQ abdominal pain that radiates to the right subscapular area or the epigastrum
biliary colic
Inspiratory arrest during deep palpation of the RUQ
Murphy's sign, indicative of cholecystitis
Gallstones in the common bile duct
choledocholithiasis
Hallmark lab values in choledocholithiasis
elevated alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin
Acute bacterial infection of the biliary tree that occurs secondary to obstruction, usually from gallstones
Acute cholangitis
Charcot's triad
RUQ pain, jaundice, and fever/chills. Classic signs of acute cholangitis
Reynold's pentad
Charcot's triad plus shock and altered mental status. Signs of acute suppurative cholangitis; suggests sepsis
An idiopathic disorder characterized by inflammation, fibrosis, and strictures of extra and intrahepatic bile ducts. Usually presents in young men with IBD, especially UC.
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
LFTs in hepatocellular injury
Marked elevation of AST and ALT, mild elevation of bilirubin and alk phos
LLQ abdominal tenderness to palpation associated with constipation and a low grade fever
Acute diverticulitis
70 year old with fatigue, no history of alcohol abuse or liver disease, no meds. PE shows scleral icterus. Lab reveals normocytic normochromic anemia, conjugated hyperbilirubinemia with bilirubin in the urine. Serum bilirubin is 12mg/dl with ALT and AST in the normal range. Alk phos is 3x the normal limit. Most likely diagnosis?
Biliary obstruction. Confirm with an ultrasound or CT scan.
Villous atrophy with with increased lymphocytes in the lamina propria is found on small bowel biopsy. Likely diagnosis?
Ulcerative colitis
Mucosal inflammation and edema with crypt abscesses are found on sigmoidoscopy. Likely diagnosis?
Crohn's disease.
If a patient has completed their hepatitis B vaccine series, what would you expect to find on their hepatitis profile?
antibody against the hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBS)
40 year old male has a history of 3 duodenal ulcers with prompt recurrence after medical treatment. Serum gastrin was reported as 200pg/ml. What test will confirm your diagnosis?
Secretin injection test. The history fits the profile of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. The secretin injection test will cause another increase in gastrin from a duodenal or pancreatic tumor.
Initial treatment for Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.
PPI. If this fails, then surgical resection. (Drug treatment is usually successful.)
30 year old female has a 3 week history of diarrhea with blood and mucus. Colonoscopy reveals inflamed friable mucosa from rectum to midsigmoid. Biopsy reveals inflammation with erosions. Likely diagnosis?
Ulcerative colitis
32 year old female presents with 3 week history of diarrhea and RLQ abdominal pain. Biopsy findings reveal inflamed areas with nodular thickening especially at the terminal ileum. Likely diagnosis?
Crohn's disease
69 year old female smoker presents with a 3 week history of low grade fever and bloody diarrhea. Colonoscopy reveals continuous erythema in the colon only. Likely diagnosis?
Ulcerative colitis. The combined risk factors of age (69) and smoking, with the presentation of low grade fever and the passage of blood is classic for ulcerative colitis.
Differentiating sign between acute cholecystitis and acute cholangitis
Acute cholangitis will have a fever as high as 105 (F). In acute cholecystitis, the fever rarely goes above 100 (F).
An 18 year old male develops enteric hepatitis. Which hepatitis virus is the most likely cause?
Hepatitis A. Fecal-oral transmission.
On colonoscopy of a 50 year old asymptomatic man, a 0.5cm tubular adenoma was found and removed. When should he return for a repeat colonoscopy?
3 years. In patients with only one polyp found and removed on initial exam, the optimal follow-up interval is every 3 years. In patients with no polyps on initial colonoscopy, a follow up interval of 5 years should be safe.
What vitamin supplementation should be given to a patient with ulcerative colitis who is treated with sulfasalazine?
Folate
The most clinically useful marker for the presence of acute and chronic hepatitis B is...
hepatitis B surface antigen
LFTs in cholestasis
Marked elevation of alk phos and bilirubin, with or without increased aminotransferases
A clinical sign that arises when excess bilirubin (>2.5mg/dl) is circulating the blood
Jaundice
Prodrome of malaise, fever, joint pain, fatigue, URI symptoms, N/V, and change in bowel habits followed by jaundice and RUQ tenderness
Acute hepatitis (viral)
IgM HAVAb: what is it and what does its presence indicate?
IgM antibody to hepatitis A virus; best test to detect active hepatitis A
HBsAg: what is it and what does its presence indicate?
Antigen found on the surface of Hepatitis B virus. Continued presence indicates carrier state.
Sudden, steady epigastric pain, often radiating to the back, aggravated by walking and lying supine, relieved by sitting and leaning forward. May have mild jaundice and fever.
Acute pancreatitis