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113 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
30 % of radiation from the sun is lost to
latent and sensible heat
Most of heat transfer is governed by
greenhouse factors
w/o greenhouse effects the mean temp would be

the present mean temp is
-17C

15C
climate change due to changes outside the system
short wave radiation
climate change between components within the system
ocean currents.
most climate change is due to variation from
within the system
principle components
atmosphere, land surface, oceans, cryosphere, biosphere
time of change:
atmosphere
earth surface
oceans
cryosphere
biosphere
hours
days
weeks to centuries
centuries+
varies widely
positive feedback
glaciations and albedo leading to icehouse world
negative feedback
greenhouse and oceanic CO2
critical thresholds, that when crossed induce rapid change
freezing point:
albedo, flow, evaporations
chaos
imperceptibly small variation may lead to large and unpredictable changes
componets of the atmpshere
troposphere is all we are concerned with
differential heating leads to high and low pressures
convection(hot air is light)
quasi stable pressures
winds
hadley circulation - monsoons
moisture effects move heat energy and rain
latent heat loss, significantly more important than sensible
ITCZ
intertropical convergence zone
heat transfer that is a major focus of paleoclimates
polar heat transfer, related to the movement of the itcz
what shifts with the itcz
tradewinds
poleward heat transfer has an effect on
storm track, latent heat transfer, and ocean circulation
ocean surface currents are driven by
wind+corriolis
eckman flow
net water movement at 90 degrees to wind
deep currents are driven by
thermohaline properties, (massive bank of heat energy, largest store of available CO2)
Earth surface changes at 2 scales
short term, and long term
long term are affected by climate
continent position, mountains (wind/rain), erosion, weathering
cryosphere
long term effects on climate, and responds slowly to climate change
cryosphere processes
albedo, water sequestration(continental glaciers), thermohaline circulation(salt starving)
biosphere affects 2 climate processes
carbon cycling, albedo
how we know it's our CO2
coincident with industrial revolution, global aleration in carbon isotopes, loss of O2, Suess effect
best seen in suess effect
large quantities of dead carbon added to atmosphere, seen in sequential 14C measurements, msked by bomb radiocarbon
other greenhouse gases being added
methane- stronger but short 1/2 life

water- complex
As CO2 levels increase, the impact of further CO2 additions is
diminished
We need more data (more time)
lag times make it
tricky
In order to better understand the fundamentals we need better models, which will
take a great deal of time
what make it difficult to calculate the doubling of time since industrial revolution
economic and technological uncertainties
Major impact would rely on
massive feedbacks like end of thermohaline circulation or methane hydrate dissociation
what would a warmer world be like?
sea level, extereme weather
parameters we measure
temp, precipitation variability,
proxy (climate science)
agency or function of a deputy

a measurement of a climate variabe that is made through a consequence of that variable
temp and rainfall affects the growth rate of trees,
by measuring rings we infer past climate
quaitative
quanitative
time series
discreet
-general conditions
-precision limits, numerical data
-continuous measurement of a variable
-"snapshot" of past conditions
proxies commonly used
ice cores, sediment cores, skeletal chemistry, fossil biogeography
common thread is need for
age control
dating
sratographic, radiometric, skeletal,

absolute, relative, internal chronologies
by studying modern systems we can
quantify temp relationships and apply them to the past
isotope systems
-O
-H
-C
temp and water properties

water properties

metabolism and dating
Delat values
(sample-standard/standard)*1000
light isotopes have a higher vapor pressure, thus vapor is composed of
lighter isotopes than the fluid it evaporated from
condensation will favor
heavy isotopes
as it gets colder there is more condensation, thus more lighter isotopes left in vapor
-positive correlation with atmospheric temperature
delta18O is a function of
temp at the time of crystallization, and the oxygen isotope content of the fluid from which the crystal grows

negative correlation with temp
detailed proxies help model
short term events
show a collong event after the end of the LGM
pollen cores, dryas tundra plant
heinrich cycles
periodic conglomerates in N atlantic deep ocean cores, (ice transport)
bolling allerod interstidal
abrupt warming 14,000 bp

slowed thermohaline circulation
if thermohaline is altered then
heat reservoirs shift
ENSO 3 factors
SST/ upwelling
atmospheric pressure
precipitation
SST/upwelling
east pacific warming west pacific colling, thermocline deepens in the east
atmospheric pressure
equatorial pressure reversal, trade winds slow or reverse
precipitation
reversal conditions, as in rain in the desert
warm

cold
el nino

la nina
NAO
shifts in high and low pressure centers, postive is lower pressure higher in the Atlantic, negative is southward displacement of these centers, teleconnections
teleconnections
impacts distal to the zone of initial change

all of these cycles have global impact,
moranes
evidence of glacitations, ice age, conglomerates are deposited in mid atlantic, calve off deposit stones and gives us spatial understanding of how this occurs
how do we know the paleolatitude of a rock
magnetic field, gives us images of aincient continent positions
ocean core dating
characterizing by foramanifera
O isotopes give us huge swings
glacial periods(less water)
glacial ice
accumalted snow, evaporationf of sea water and putting it on land
less ice = change in
O isotopes
water weight:
gulf of mexico
cloud
river
0
-5
-7
oxygen isotope line wiggles because of
amount of ice
through evaporation the glaciers are selectively taking the light isotopes
and they stay there
The hotter the crystal gets a sit grows,
the more negative the value gets, more lighter isotopes preferentially get taken in
take a crystal, put its isotope chem in equation to solve the
temp it was formed in
single most important proxy
isotopes
SMOW
standard mean of ocean water
measure sample, compare to standard. multiply by 1000.
gives weight of
oxygen that oxygen molecule
less than 0
greater than 0
evaporated seawater
water that has suffered evaporation
ice becomes more abundant, we sequester more light isotopes, thus ocean water becomes
heavier
triple variable problem
measure sample
infer the salinity and temp that it formed at!!!!!
O isotopes have a negative correlation with
temp
measure preferential clumping of heavy isotopes, tells us
temp of surface water. still experimental in geochem
2 variables that govern o isotope value
temp and weight of water
temp goes up
O isotopes go down
heavy water
high 18 O values
-one unit change of water value = one unit change of delta O 18
mixing of fresh and salt water and evaporation
govern water value
delta O 18
essential to understanding past clmates
geochem finger prints used to track
deep ocean water currents
indirect measure ment of past climate
proxy
LGM
18000 yrs ago
past 10000 yrs
holocene
detailed proxies expose
short term climate events
climate change when demonstrated on graphs is surprising
episodic, spiky
ice records and corals help us figure out
salinity, also we can determine depth they grow in based on type
date coral by what element
uranium,
therefore we can infer sea level from these 2 sources of data anout coral
bomb sequence
follow radiation around the world and use it as a tracer
-ocean circulations and wind patterns
salt evidence
2 part story of climate and tectonics
salt waters that have receded
leave strand lines, which can be dated by carbonates that might contain uranium
thermohaline shutdown
glaciers stop melting, worlds climate is like when glaciers were growing
thermohaline shutdown( disruption of pole to equator circulation) creates
climate chaos
holocene climatic optimum
many parts of the world grew comfortable warm, civilization
reference points are from
europe and North america. global extent of these things are poorly understood
coupled system (ENSO and NAO)
trade wind, hot water off coast of SA
weak counter current get super strong
named and first observed by fishermen off peru
happens around december
low pressure zone
la nina currently
represented by a seasurface temp gradient
CTD
device used in ocean to measure conditions at different depths
chemical signal of upwelling is characterized by
radiocarbon
ways to use stable isotopes to measure sst:
calcium carbonate off the edge of Austrailia
Mg:Ca St:Ca
pure temp proxies, correlated to salinity,
salinity is a factor of runoff
thus we can relate it to precipitaiton and evaporation
corals mollusk, foram are used to determine
sea surface gradient, which could determine past el nino cycles
cold water in oceanic areas indicate
upwelling
we want to understand ENSO, NAO
on a timescale oscillation
3 things that govern climate
diurnal cycles, seasons, lanina elnino
before we understand global warming we must understnad
nina/nino
SIGNAL FROM NOISE
SIGNAL FROM NOISE