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39 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is pain?
one of the body's defense mechanisms that indicates the person is experiencing a problem
What 3 sources is pain classified by?
Nociceptor, Neuropathic, psychogenic
What is a nociceptor?
a pain receptor responsible for pain sensation and is found in the skin at the ends of small afferent neurons
What is the classification of a nociceptor type pain?
acute and transmitted after processing of noxious stimuli
What is the classification of a neuropathic type pain?
injury to or abnormal functioning of peripheral nerves or CNS. Described as a "burning" or "stabbing" pain
What is the classification of a psychogenic type pain?
usually has both physical and psychogenic compnents
What are the 3 types of nociceptor pains?
cutaneous, somatic and visceral
What is a cutaneous type pain?
superficial, in the subq or skin
What is a somatic type pain?
deep, diffuse, usually tendons, ligaments, bones, blood vessels or nerves
What is a visceral type pain?
originates in the body organs, in cranium, thorax or abdomen
What is allodynia?
feature of the neuropathic pain that occurs after weak ornonpainful stimuli, such as a light touch or breeze. It's an exaggeration of the pain.
What is referred pain?
pain distant from the site of origin. eg. heart attack = shoulder pain
What is acute pain?
rapid in onset, sharp in intensity, varies from mild to severe, may last from a few moments up to 6 months and disappears after the underlying cause is gone
What is chronic pain?
pain that may be limited, intermittent or constant, but lasts at least 6 months and interferes with normal life
When a person is in remission from pain they are what?
They are free of symptoms but still have the disease.
When pain symptoms reappear this is called what?
exacerbation
pain that resists treatment and continues is called what?
intractable
What is phantom pain?
psychogenic and neurologic combination pain such as when there has been an amputation. pt. is aware body part is missing but they may have itching, tingling, stabbing or burning pain
What is the physiologic process of transduction?
damaged cell releases histamine which excites nerve endings. The nerve endings release lactic acid which exicites the nerve endings more and thus we get pain
What is transduction?
Activation of a painful stimuli into electrical impulses that travel to dorsal horn of spinal cord
What are three neurotransmitters that stimulate nociceptors?
Bradykinin, Prostaglandins and substance P.
What happens during transmission of pain response?
pain receptors carry pain impulses from pain receptors toward brain.
A Delta fibers
fast conducting fibers transmit acute well localized pain and operate the protective reflex response as in a finger on a hot stove
C fibers
slow conduction smaller fibers that transmit diffuse visceral pain (burning and aching organ pains)
What is the gate control theory
heat or massage may close the gate. Heat is substituted for the pain.
What are neuromodulators?
endogenous opioid compounds in spinal cord and brain that have an analgesic quality and alter perception of pain
What are two neuromodulators?
Endorphins and enkephalins
Endorphins
produced in the CNS pathway. Dynorphin is the most potent
Enkephalins
less potent than endorphins. Spread throughout brain and spinal cord and Inhibit the release of substance P
What is pain threshold?
lowest intensity of a stimulus that causes subject to recognize pain
True or False. Women have lower pain thresholds than men.
True
What is adaptation?
adaptation to stimulus. eg. hand in warm water begins to feel cool, clothes on your skin, etc.
What is the 5th vital sign?
pain
What are some things to remember when assessing a pt for pain?
pts verbalization and description of pain, duration, location, quantity and intensity, quality, chronology, aggravating and alleviating factors, physiologic indicators and behavioral responses, and effect on lifestyle and activities
What are some factors that affect pain tolerance?
fatigue, quite and restful atmosphere, environment with no sensory input, lack of knowledge, finding no meaning in the pain, pessimism about relief, fears, fear of pain meds
What are some alternative pain relief measures?
distraction, imagery, relaxation, cutaneous stimulations, acupuncture, hypnosis, biofeedback, therapeutic touch.
What are some examples of analgesics for pain relief?
NSAID's, IBU, Advil, Naproxyn,
What are some examples of opioid analgesics for pain relief?
morphine, hydromorhone, methadone, oxycodone, meperidine, morphine
What are adjuvant drugs?
have synergistic effect on analgesics such as enhanceing the effect of opioids. Included are anticonvulsants, antidepressants, corticosteroids, etc.