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24 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
1. What is a major clue to diagnosis of foreign body aspiration?
a. Child’s good health just prior to developing respiratory symptoms.
b. Foreign body aspiration or anaphylactic responses to an allergen are the two most likely explanations for sudden symptoms.
2. Stridor?
a. A high-pitched, monophonic musical sound resulting from partial airway obstruction.
b. The obstruction may be supraglottic (above vocal cords), glottic, and/or subglottic.
c. Stridor is louder in the upper chest.
d. May be easily confused for wheezing by less experienced clinicians.
3. How is wheezing different from stridor?
a. Wheezing represents blockage of multiple small airways and is heard as a polyphonic sound (ie, multiple pitches), heard best w/the stethoscope placed over the lung bases.
4. Tachypnea?
a. A resp rate faster than is normal for the person’s age.
5. Average respiratory rate for an infant?
a. 30 breaths/min.
6. Average respiratory rate for an 8-yr old?
a. 20 breaths/min.
7. Atelectasis
a. Collapse of a portion of the lung.
b. May be due to intrinsic factors, such as blockage of the airway proximal to the atelectic tissue, or extrinsic factors, such as pneumothorax.
8. Croup (Laryngotracheobronchitis) sx?
a. Stridor, tachypnea, chest retractions
i. +
b. Fever
c. Hoarseness
d. Recent hx of upper respiratory symptoms.
9. Viral causes of Stridor?
a. Parainfluenza viruses
b. Influenza
c. Measles
d. RSV
e. HSV
f. Adenovirus
g. Enterovirus
h. Mycoplasma or parainfluenza type 3.
10. Characteristic signs of epiglottitis?
a. Drooling
b. A preference to sit in a tripod or upright position “sniffing position”!!!
c. Muffled vocalizations
d. Inspiratory stridor
e. Absence of cough.
11. Causes of Bacterial Tracheitis?
a. S. aureus ( or less commonly Moraxella catarrhalis or non-typeable H influenzae).
b. These can occur as sequela to viral group.
c. Like epiglottitis, bacteria tracheitis can cause life-threatening airway obstruction and thus may require emergent intubation or tracheostomy.
12. Non-infectious causes mimicking foreign body aspiration?!?
a. Tracheomalacia
b. Extrinsic airway comprssion (vascular ring, tumour)
c. Intraluminal obstruction (papilloma, hemangioma).
13. Spasmodic croup?
a. Spasmodic group is used to describe the syndrome of sudden night-time onset of hoarseness, “barky” cough, and inspiratory stridor in a previously healthy, afebrile child.
b. Children w/spasmodic croup appear well during the day but develop nocturnal stridor and difficulty breathing..
14. Implicated as possible aetiologies of spasmodic croup?
a. Viral infections, respiratory allergies, GI reflux, and psychosocial factors.
15. How do coins in the trachea appear on radiograph?
a. As a line, because the cartilaginous rings on the anterior side of the trachea force the coin into this position.
16. Coins in the oesophagus?
a. Result in dysphagia and milder respiratory symptoms.
b. They appear as circles on radiograph.
17. Where are objects that are small enough to pass beyond the carina typically lodged?
a. In the Right mainstem bronchus
18. Next step in management of suspected Foreign Body Aspiration?
a. Bronchoscopy.
b. IV access should be established for administration of maintenance fluids and sedation for the procedure.
c. The child should be NPO until the respiratory distress resolves.
d. O2 sats should be monitored closely.
19. When does croup often present?
a. At night when symptoms typically worsen.
20. What is often used to relieve laryngeal spasm w/croup?
a. Cool mist.
b. The evidence supporting its efficacy is weak except in cases of allergic (spasmodic) croup.
21. Tx of laryngeal spasm associated w/croup?
a. Aerosolized epinephrine and aerosolized steroids are effective in reducing airway oedema and relieving croup symptoms.
b. Potentially irritating procedures (tongue blades or needle sticks) are avoided unless necessary.
c. Agitation and crying aggravate the respiratory symptoms.
22. Low oxygen sat in croup?
a. Indicated imminent airway obstruction.
23. Presentation of children w/mild tracheomalacia?
a. Stridor only intermittently (eg, w/crying), but it is first noted in early infancy.
24. Complete
24. Complete