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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Tx of brain tumour in children
surgery most often, rt may affect neuro cognitive function (worse if younger or supratentorial), rt may cause hypopit, rt is carcinogenic, chemo is another option
What is a neuroblastoma
tumour of the adrenal gland or of sympathetic, nerve trunks, most are abdominal others are thoracic, pelvic, cervical, other
What is the prognosis of neuroblastoma
poor, majority are malignant, intensive chemo surgery, better if <1yr, poor prognositc features (eg m-myc, stage iv presentation)
How does stage 4 neuroblastoma present
flank mass, unhappy, bony mets (black eyes, pains, limp, lumps, anaemia)
How can neuroblastoma present
newborn with massive liver mets, neck mass, paraspinal chest mass, spinal cord compression, adrenal mass on antenatal us
How does wilms tumour present
young children (1-7yrs), flank mass (often painless), haematuria, mets to liver/lungs
Prognosis of wilms tumour
generally pretty good
How does hodgkins present
teenager, neck mass, mediastinal mass, adenopathy, B symptoms, mostly favourable histology with good outcomes with ct and rt
How does non hodgkins present
all high grade, fast growing, cured by chemo, t cell, older child, mediastinal mass, pleural effusion, burkitts (abd disease, intussus, abd mass, marrow or csf disease)
When do bone sarcomas present
teenages, usually corresponds to growth spurt
What are the features of ewing sarcoma
diaphyseal long bones, axial (pelvis, ribs), extra osseous tumours, t (11:22) leads to EWSFLI1 fusion transcript, 90% survive if no mets
What are the features of osteosarcoma
growing ends of long bones, distal femur, prox tibia, prox humerus, 70% survival if non metastic
What are the tx options for bony sarcomas
surgery and chemo
What is the most common soft tissue sarcoma, and list its features
rhabdomyosarc, ambryonal and alveolar subtypes, sensitive to chemo, rt, 70% survival if non met, sites GU>extrem>parameningeal>head and neck>orbit
What are some non rhabdo soft tissue sarcomas
undifferentiated, synovial, liposarcoma, these are less chemosensative
What are really bad cancer in children
metastatic sarcoma, stage 4 neuroblast over 1yr, high grade glioma, all with bad chromosome, infant all, recurrent anything
what are some side effects of chemo
alopecia, myelosuppresion, sepsis, mucositis
tx of febrile neutropenia
broad spectrum antibiotics (timentin, genta, keflin)
what are some late effects of cancer tx
infertility, secondary neoplasia (eg aml from alkylating, solid tumours from rt), cardiac (anthracyclines), hypopit from rt, neuro cog from rt, ototox, nephrotox etc