Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/65

Click to flip

65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
upper motor neurons refer to
brain & spinal cord
ie: central nervous system
lower motor neurons refer to
12 cranial nerves + 31 spinal + branches
peripheral nervous system
Brain consists of 4 parts
Cerebral Cortex
Diencephalon
Brainstem
Cerebellum
Cerebral cortex is broken into lobes (4)
Frontal lobe
Parietal lobe
Occipital lobe
Temporal lobe
Broca's area is found
in the frontal lobe, and governs speech formation
ie, person who has this can understand speech, but not speak themselves
Wernicke's area is found
in the temporal lobe. it governs speech comprehension.

ex: someone with this cannot comprehend other's speech
What does frontal lobe govern
personality, behaviors, emotions, intellectual function
Primary motor area
What does parietal lobe govern
primary sensory area
What does occipital lobe govern
visual perception CNII
What does temporal lobe govern
hearing, taste & smell
what % of people are left hemisphere dominant?
95%
Parts of the Diencephalon (deep in brain)
Basal ganglia
thalamus
hypothalmus
basal ganglia govern
auto arm swing, part effected by parkinsons
thalamus governs
main relay station, synapse formed
hypothalamus governs
temperature control
sleep
pituitary gland regulation
some emtion
parts of the brainstem (3)
Midbrain
Pons
Medulla
Midbrain
anterior
Pons
ascending/descending
Medulla
motor sensory nerve tracks, vital autonomic center (breathing/heart etc) site of pyramidal decussation
pyramidal decussation
crossing of motor fibers
major motor pathways (3)
corticospinal or pyramidal tract
extra pyramidal tract
cerebellar system
corticospinal or pyramidal
voluntary movement, skilled and discrete
extrapyramidal tract
motor fibers
basal ganglia
gross body movement
cerebellar system
equilibrium
posture
coordination
major sensory pathways (2)
Spinothalamic tract
posterior column
spinothalamic tract
spine->thalamus
temperature
pain (sharp/dull)
crude/light touch (cotton ball)
fine discretion @ cortex
posterior column
proprioception (position)
vibration
fine localized touch (graphesthesia)
which portion of the spine is sensory? motor?
posterior: sensory
anterior: motor
required for a reflex arc (5)
intact sensory nerve
fxn'l synapse in cord
intact motor neuron
intact neuromuscular junction
competent muscle
What reflexes test what?
ankle
knee
ankle: Sacral 1
knee: L2, L3, L4
what reflexes test what?
brachial radialis
bicep
both test C5 & C6
what reflexes test what?
tricep
plantar
tricep: C6 & C7
plantar: L5 & S1
mental status: define
lethargic
drowsy
ie: concussion
mental status: define
obtunded
only seen in hospital
open eyes, responds slowly, no interest in environment
mental status: define
stuperous
only seen in hospital
only awakened by painful stimuli, maybe verbally responsive
mental status: define
comatose
only seen in hospital
always unarousable
what is the first thing to go with orientation? (ANOx3)
Time.
then place
then person
Language, and inability to follow directions to the end indicates what?
dementia
why don't use ammonia to test CN I?
it messes up CN V
Bells Palsy
paralysis of half of face, including brow, due to cut in cranial nerve VII

can't close eye, can't raise brow, no nasal labial fold on one side
What is the sensory portion of CN VII test?
taste
How is stroke different than Bells Palsy?
the pt. can still raise their eyebrows and close their eye. It is really only the lower portion of the face that is paralyzed.
What is the vestibular portion of CNVIII?
Romberg test: the feet together, hands at your side

abnormal to fall back
3 kinds of muscle tone?
Flaccid
Spastic
Rigid
Flaccid?
decrease in muscle tone: early stroke, polio
Spastic
increase in muscle tone, increased resistance to extension, inuurty to corticomotor spinal tract
[later stroke victims, think curled bicep]
Rigid
constant state of contraction
parkinsons, parkinsonism
cog wheel rigidity

damage of the extra pyramidal tract
hypotrophy of muscle can be due to
muscle or lower motor neuron disease
involuntary movements (3)
fasiculation
tick
tremor
>tension tremor
>pill rolling
fasiculation
rapid twitching of resting muscle
tick
repetitive twitch at inappropriate time
neurological/psychological

ex: shoulder shrug
Tremor
Pill rolling = parkinsons
Tension tremor = extension, tremor when pouring water
spinothalamic tract:
if pt response to pain, you you don't have to test
temperature
Posterior column:
tactile discrimination tests?
stereognosis (object)
graphesthesia (draw #)
two point discrimination
extinction (touch different hands)
tests of cerebellar function
rapid alternating movements
point to point movements
coordination tests
cerebellar function
point to point movement tests
finger to finger
finger to nose
heel to shin
heel to shin test being bouncy can indicate
MS
pronator drift test weakness can indicate
small stroke
pronator drift test overshoot can indicate
cerebellar problem
cerebellar function test
gait
tandem walking
romberg test
shallow knee bend
+ babinski can indicate
upper motor neuron problem
spinal cord damage
following a seizure
losta drugs
how test for clonus (4+ reflex)
support knee, dorso flex foot
cog wheel rigidity in motion
increase in muscle tone
increase in reflexes
and up going toe indicate
upper motor neuron problem
ie: damage to spinal cord or cerebral cortex
loss of muscle tone
less relexes indicate
lower motor neuron problem