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49 Cards in this Set

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10 Significant Trends
1
Population shifts to the suburbs and to the western and southern regions of the country in the 1970-1980s
10 Significant Trends
2
Consolidation of local government occurs
10 Significant Trends
3
Increase in the workforce of state and local governments from 1950-present
10 Significant Trends
4
Aging of populations; greater demand for workers to support social security
10 Significant Trends
5
1990s brings a massive wave of legal and illegal immigration
10 Significant Trends
6
Shift from strong mayor to manager council structure in local governments
10 Significant Trends
7
Entry-level jobs develop outside of the central cities while welfare to work laws create a spatial mismatch problem. Despite this, welfare rolls drop by 50% from 1996 to 2000
10 Significant Trends
8
Gentrification and public-private ventures
10 Significant Trends
9
Privatization and reinventing government (emphasizes performance measures, benchmarks, and a customer-orientation toward taxpayers)
10 Significant Trends
10
Increase in gaming to enhance revenues partly for education because of tax revolts
Colorado State Auditors Model
•It is a systematic approach to evaluating the technical feasibility of contracting out.
Colorado State Auditors Model
•Assumes that the activity being considered is currently being provided in-house.
Colorado State Auditors Model
•After the 9 key decision factors have been decided the scores are transferred to the Privatization Profile Summary Form. If the majority of the scores are on the right side of the form then it is a good candidate for contracting out, if it is mostly on the left side then it would probably not be a good idea to contract out
Colorado State Auditors Model
•If line hovers 0 CSA suggests revising each of the key decision factors that favor in-house delivery
• Problems- assumes that all key decision factors are of equal importance therefore some factors must be weighted.
Colorado State Auditors Model
•Dealing with the impact on public employees- providing transfers, include in the contract that they have to hire public employees
Colorado State Auditors Model
•Dealing with political resistance-design compromises into the contract, delay to a better time of year
CSA’s 9 Decision Factors for Service Contracting
1
Market Strength- the commercial characteristics of the service or activity that may make the private sector more or less interested in providing it.
CSA’s 9 Decision Factors for Service Contracting
2
Political Resistance- that amount of opposition to a change in the provider of a service or activity, as demonstrated by current recipients/beneficiaries, elected officials, citizens, or other interest groups (ex. Unions)
CSA’s 9 Decision Factors for Service Contracting
3
Service Quality- the expected impact that contracting out will have on the effectiveness, timeliness, and other quality characteristics of the service or activity
CSA’s 9 Decision Factors for Service Contracting
4
Impact on Public Employees
CSA’s 9 Decision Factors for Service Contracting
5
Legal Barriers-the effect that any laws, statutes, or ordinances may have on a decision to contract out
CSA’s 9 Decision Factors for Service Contracting
6
Risk- the degree to which contracting out exposes the government to additional hazards, including legal and/or financial exposure, service disruption, corruption, and other factors
CSA’s 9 Decision Factors for Service Contracting
7
Resources- the efficient and effective use of government assets, including in-house or private sector advantages in terms of professional expertise, facilities or equipment, time constraints, and revenue or expenditure restrictions
CSA’s 9 Decision Factors for Service Contracting
8
Control- the government’s ability to exercise ultimate control over the service
CSA’s 9 Decision Factors for Service Contracting
9
Cost Efficiency- the expected cost of contracting out for a service, assuming no change in quantity or quality
City of Cincinnati’s Model cost comparison methodology
Fully Allocated Costs Approach- compares contractor costs with the total direct and indirect costs and it assumes that all government indirect costs are avoided when a target service is contracted out
City of Cincinnati’s Model cost comparison methodology
Avoidable Costs Approach-doesn’t assume the above stated but includes only those costs that the government will no longer incur by contracting out
City of Cincinnati’s Model cost comparison methodology
Computing the Cost of In-House Government Service Delivery- Personnel Costs, non-personnel costs, overhead (indirect) costs, depreciation costs
City of Cincinnati’s Model cost comparison methodology
Computing the Costs of Contract Service Delivery- Contract price, contract admin. costs, one time conversion costs, revenue, disposal of assets, local income tax
Pros for Contracting Out
1. Harnesses competitive forces
2. Takes advantage of specialized skills
3. Promotes minority entrepreneurs
4. All tasks are essentially similar
5. Emphasizes entrepreneurship
Cons for Contracting Out
1. Promotes corrupt practices
2. Costs in layoffs, wages, UE
3.job losses in minority community
4. public tasks are different/harder
5. Encourages insider deals (honest graft)
Examples of Privatization
1. Airport operations
Examples of Privatization
2. Animal control
Examples of Privatization
3. Building security
Examples of Privatization
4. Recreation facilities
Examples of Privatization
5. Solid waste collection
GAO top 1
Political Champion- privatization can best be introduced/sustained when P leader C it
GAO second
Implementation Structure- gov’t leader need to establish a structure
GAO bottom
1
Legislative & resource changes- gov’t may need to enact Lchanges & reduce resources
GAO bottom
2
Reliable Cost Data- to support decisions & assess overall performance
GAO bottom
3
Strategies for workforce transition- need strategies to manage workforce
GAO bottom
4
Monitoring and oversight- MO needed to protect gov’t interests
Seven criterion for taxes
1
1.Revenue Productivity: Does the tax provide enough revenue? Will it work long-term?
Seven criterion for taxes
2
2.Neutrality: Taxes should not distort people’s decisions to work, save, etc. the broader the tax, the less likely the distortion.
Seven criterion for taxes
3
3.Equity: Vertical Equity- deals with ability to pay
Horizontal Equity- deals with equals being treated equally.
Seven criterion for taxes
4
4.Tax Exporting: An increasing number of local governments are adopting sales taxes because a sizable portion is shifted to commuters.
Seven criterion for taxes
5
5.Investment/Economic Growth: A tax structure should relate to a jurisdiction’s competitiveness regionally, nationally, and internationally.
Seven criterion for taxes
6
6.Administrative Feasibility/Cost: A tax should be easy to collect and inexpensive to administer.
Seven criterion for taxes
7
7.Taxpayer Compliance Costs: A tax system should be relatively easy to understand.