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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
opponet-process theory
the theory that opposing retinal processes(red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision. For example some cells are stimulated by red; others are stimulated by green.
color constancy
Perciving familar objects as having consistant color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelenghts reflected by the objects.
the sence of hearing
a tone's highness or lowness; depends on frequency.
the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time (for example a second).
Middle ear
the chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil, and strrup)that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea's oval window
inner ear
the innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs.
a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger neural impluses
Place Theory
in hearing, the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is simulated
Frequency Theory
in hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses travling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sence its pitch
Conduction Hearing loss
hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea.
Sensorineural Hearing loss
Hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerves; also called nerve deafness
Gate-control theroy
the theory that the spinal cord contains a neuralogical "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. The "gate" is opened by by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers or by information comming from the brain
Sensory interaction
the priciple that one sense may influence antoher, as when the smell of food influences its taste.
the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts.
Vestibular sense
the sense of body movement and position, including the sence of balance.
Visual capture
the tendency for vision to dominate the other senses.
an orgainzed whole._____ Psychologists emphise our tendency to intergrate pieces of informaiton into meaniful wholes.
Figure-ground relationship
the organization of the visual field into objects (the figure) that stand out from their surroundings.
the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups
depth perception
the ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two demensional; allows us to judge distance.
Visual Cliff
a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and animals.
Binocular cues
depth cues, such as retinal disparity and convergence, that depend on the use of two eyes.
Monocular cue
distance cues, such as linear perspective and overlap, available to either eye alone.
Retinal disparity
a binocular que for perceiving depth: By comparing images from the two eye balls, the brain computes distance- the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object.
Phi Phenomenon
an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on or off in sucession.
Perceptual Constancy
perceving objects as unchanging (having consistent lightness, color, shape, and size) even as illumination and retinal images change.
Perceptual Adaptation
in vision the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field.
Perceptual Set
a mental predisposition to precieve one thing and not another.
Extrasensory perception (ESP)
the controversaial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input. Said to include telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition.
the study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis.