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21 Cards in this Set

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Acclimation
Physiological adaptation to repeated environmental stresses, occurring over a relatively brief period of time (days to weeks). Often occurs in a lab environment
Acclimatization
Physiological adaptation to repeated environmental stress in a natural environment,occurring over months and years of living and exercising in that environment
Aldosterone
A mineralocorticoid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that prevents dehydration by promoting renal absorption of sodium
antidiuretic hormone (ADH): arginine vasopressin
A hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that regulates fluid and electrolyte balance in the blood by reducing urine production
Conduction
1) Transfer of heat through direct molecular contact with a solid object

2) Movement of an electrical impulse, such as through a neuron
Convection
The transfer of heat of cold via the movement of gas or liquid across an object, such as the body
Critical Temperature Theory
Theory that prolonged exercise in hot environments is limited by attainment of a fixed elevated core temperature
Dry heat exchange
Heat transfer by the combined avenues of convection, conduction, and radiation
Eccrine sweat gland
simple sweat glands dispersed over the body surface that respond to increases in core or skin temp (or both) and facilitate thermoregulation
Evaporation
Heat loss through the conversion of water (such as in sweat) to vapor
Frostbite
tissue damage that occurs during cold exposure because circulation to the skin deceases, in an attempt to retain body heat, to the point tissues receive insufficient oxygen and nutrients
Habituation
short-term adaptation to a stress
Heat Cramp
cramping of the skeletal muscles as a result of excessive dehydration and the associated salt loss
Heat Exhaustion
A heat disorder resulting from an inability of the cardiovascular system to meet all the body tissues needs while also shifting the blood to the periphery for cooling, characterized by elevated body temp, breathlessness, extreme tiredness, dizziness, and rapid pulse
Heatstroke
The most serious heat disorder, resulting from failure of the body's thermoregulatory mechanisms. Characterized by temp above 40.5 C(105 F), cessation of sweating, and total confusion or unconsciousness and can lead to death
Hyperthermia
elevated body temp; any temp above a person's normal resting body temperature
Hypothermia
low body temp; any temperature below the given person's normal temperature
Hypoxemia
A decreased oxygen content or concentration within the blood
Insulation
Resistance to dry heat exchange
Non-shivering thermogenesis
The stimulation of metabolism by the sympathetic nervous system to generate more metabolic heat
Preoptic-anterior hypothalamus(POAH)
The area of the mid-brain that is the primary controller of theromoregulatory function