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33 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
factor analysis
a statistical procedure used to determine which of a number of factors, or scores, are both closely related to each other and relatively independent of other groups of factors, or scores
general factor (g)
general mental energy, or ability, involved in all cognitive tasks
specific factors (s)
factors unique to particular cognitive tasks
triarchic theory of intelligence
a theory that proposes three major componenets of intelligent behavior: information-processing skills, experience with a particular situation, and ability to adapt to the demands of a context
successful intelligence
ability to fit into, mold, and choose environments that best fulfill one's own needs and desires as well as the demands of one's society and culture. Includes analytical, creative, and practical abilities
tacit knowledge
implicit knowledge that is shared by many people and that guides behavior
theory of multiple intelligences
Gardner's multifactorial theory that proposes eight distinct types of intelligence
intelligence quotient (IQ)
an index of the way a person performs on a standardized intelligence test relative to the way others her age perform
culture-fair test
a test that attempts to minimize cultural biases in content that might influence the test taker's responses
stanford-binet test
the modern version of the first major intelligence test; emphasizes verbal and mathematical skills
mental age
an index of a child's actual performance on an intelligence test as compared with his true age
wechsler intelligence scales
three intelligence tests for preschool children, school-age children, an adults that yield separate scores for verbal and performance IQ as well as combined IQ score
deviation IQ
an IQ score that indicates that extent to which a person's performance on a test deviates from age-mate's average performance
a psychologist who specializes in the construction and use of tests designed to measure various psychological constructs such as intelligence and various personality characteristics
test norms
values, or sets of values, that describe the typical test performance of a specific group of people
the process by which test constructors ensure that testing procedures, instructions, and scoring are identical, or as nearly so as possible, on every occasion
the extent to which a test actually measures what it claims to measure
the degree to which a test yields consistent results over time or successive administrations
the ability to recognize a new stimulus as novel and to direct attention to it in preference to a familiar stimulus
flynn effect
increase in the average IQ score in the populations of the United States and other developed countries since early 1900s
associative learning
Accordig to Jensen, lower-level learning tapped in tests of such things as short-term memorization and recall, attention, rote learning, and simiple associative skills. Also called level 1 learning
cognitive learning
according to Jensen, higher-level learning tapped in tests of such things as abstract thinking, symbolic processing, and the use of language in problem solving. Also called level 2 learning
characteristic acquired during development in the uterus or during the birth process and not through heredity
achievement motivation
a person's tendency to strive for successful performance, to evaluate her performance against standards of excellence, and to feel pleasure at having performed successfully
stereotype threat
being at risk of confirming a negative stereotype about the group to which one belongs
cumulative risk
the notion that risk factors in children's life circumstances have cumulative negative effects on their intellectual performance
head start
a federally funded program that provides disadvantaged young children with preschool experience, social services, and medical and nutritional assistance
two-generation program
a program of early cognitive intervention that extends help to parents as well as to their children
intellectual giftedness
a characteristic defined by an IQ score of 130 or over; gifted children learn faster that others and may show early exceptional talents in certain areas
mental retardation
a characteristic defined by an IQ score below 70 together with difficulty in coping with age-appropriate activities of everyday life
learning disabilities
deficits in one or more cognitive processes important for learning
a policy by which children of all ability levels, whether learning disabled, physically handicapped, or mentally retarded, are included in the same classroom
the ability to solve problems, create products, or pose questions in a way that is novel or unique