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29 Cards in this Set

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laughter
boosts immune system

:)
innate immunity

vs

adaptive immunity
defense mechs before infection



-mechs stimulated by microbes and antigens
adaptive immunity types
Cell mediated- defense against intracelluar microbes

Humoral Mediated- defense against extracellualar microbes and toxins (bacteria)
T cells
- thymus derived

CD4+ T cells- surface antigen binders, bind MHC II

CD8 T cells- cytotoxic T cells, bind MHC I antigen
B cells
mediate humoral immunity

become plasma cells and secrete antibody

IgG, IgM, IgE, IgA

IgM- first antibodies on site (new infection)

IgG- old infection (fast rechallenge)

IgA- in places open to environmental areas
Macrophage

Dendritic cells

Natural Killer cells
- presents antigen

D-- present antigen to CD4 cells, have BOTH HLA I and II (thats special)

nk- lyse cells that dont look good
can lyse IgG coated target cells - Antibody dependant cell mediated cytoxicity ADCC
Cytokines
proteins modulate function other cell types

interleukins ILs- act mostly on leukocytes (IL2, 4 act on lymphocyte active,growth,development)

TNF-a, TNF-b, IFN-y, IL 5,10, 12 activate inflam
Major histocompatibility antigens
function bind peptide fragments of foreign proteins to show right T cells shits going down
HLA class I
on all nucleated cells and platelets---NOT IMMUNE cells...cept dendritic

bind stuff from inside cell like viral proteins, show on outside and wait for cytox T

alpha 1 and alpha2 domains
HLA Class II
on immune cells

alpha 1 and beta 1 domains form the groove

recognized by CD4 helper T cells
Hypersensitivity rxns
Type I
anaphylactic

rapid, hyperesponsive after mast cells or basophils active in previously sensitized person
what happens during 2 stages of hypersen I
initial response- vasodilation nad vascular leakage occurs


late response- 2-8 hours later no further exposure, intense infiltration of tissues by phils

can cause tissue destruction, inflam
hyper

Type II
Rh blood type and shit

complement dependant rxn- rather direct lysis or opsonization (macrophage prep)

antibody dependant cell mediated cytoxicity- cell lysis w/o phagocytes

antibody mediated cellular dysfunction- stimulatory or inhibitory processes

ex myastenia gravis, graves disease
hyper

Type III
immune complex mediated

induced by antigen-antibody complexes

first formation of complexes in circulation

next deposit those in tissues

inflam rxn at sites across body
Type IV

hyper
PPD? immune response to mycobacterium tuberculosis

involve CD4 and CD8, may be key player in transplant rejection

form granulomas, barrier keeps shit quarantined (cuz shit cant be killed i think)
central tolerance
death immature selfreactive T and B lymphos in thymus
peripheral tolerance
escape negative selection,

deleted by anergy, suppressed by tcells or clonal deletion(apoptosis)
Systemic lupus erythematosus
array of autoantibodies mostly antinuclear antibodies

activates help Ts and B cells

ANAs directed at nuclear antigens---DNA, histones, nucleolar antigens

false positive for syphilis, prolonged PTT

kidneys, joints, skin, RBCs suffer
Sjogren sydrome
dry eyes and dry mouth---fibrosis destruction lacrimal and salivary glands

2 ribonucleoprotein antigens SS-A, SS-B
X linked Agammaaglobulinemia of Bruton
failure B cells differentiate due to mutation Bruton tyrosine kinase

apparent at 6 months of age
Thymic hypoplasia- DiGeorge sydrome
defect in thymic development

T cell activation abscent
Common Variable Immunodeficency
intrinsic B cell defects and abnormal T cells activation B cells

B cells cant mature to plasma cells
Isolated IgA deficiency
most common IDD

cant produce IgA cells....
Servere Combined IDD
most common X linked (yay)

defective IL-7

suseptable to...everything

defiency enzyme ADENOSINE DEAMINASE (ADA)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
AIDS!
AIDS!
caused by HIV

Sexual transmission, mostly MSM in US

virus in semen and vagina and cervical cells

other STDs increase likeiness transmission

mother to infant is called vertical transmission

AIDs demetia can occur from cytokine responses, not from virus itself
Aids

3 phases
Acute- 3-6 wks, sore throat, fever, rash, CD4 reduction but return to normal
viremia abates but virus replicates in specific cells

Chronic-lymphadenopathy develops, minor opportunistic infections
CD4 decline

Crisis- breakdown, viremia
fever for >1 month
CD4 lessthan 500
Aids

diagnoisi 3 types
ELISA- 99%, p24 readily detectable

Western Blot- 2 bands from either gag or env region must be present for +ve

Viral Load-useful indicator of disease progess
Amyloidosis
deposition of proteinaceous substance tween cells of body

combo of diff diseases