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156 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Loops work where?
ascending loop of henle
thiazides work where?
D.C.T
potassium sparing diruetics work where
C.T.
how does digoxin work
it inhib Na/K ase and increases Na so less Ca is pumped out
Which has a ceiling effect?
Loops or Thiazides
Thiazides do, loops don't-more loop more diuresis
potency
furosemide=torsemide=bumetanide
f 40= t20=b1
which loop for sulfa allergy pt, whats its strength
edecrin ( ethacrynic acid)
25mg
loops decrease which elements?

thiazides decrease which
loops-Na, K, Mg and Ca

thiazides-Na, K, Mg but NOT Ca*****
-good for osteo pt's
lozol
gen name?
doses
fun facts
indapamide-thiazide like
1.25, 2.5
longer acting tthan HCTX
hygroton
gen name?
dose?
fun fact
chlorthalidone
25,50,100
longest of thiazide likes
zaroxolyn
gen name?
dose?
fun fact
metolazone
2.5,5,10 mg
good for dec GFR pt's
whats in dyazide
triamterene + HCTZ
caps-37.5/25
Aldactone
gen name
HTN dose
Cirrhosis dose
spironolactone
HTN-25mg BID
C-50 QID or >

ald antag, K sparing-watch salt substitues
inspra
gen name?
strength
eplerenone 25 or 50 BID or QD
ald antag, but less gynecomastia
BB
BBW?
don't abruptly dc meds-taper over 2 to 3 wks
inderal
gen name?
injection dose?
solubility?
propranolol-non selective
IV 1mg = 40mg PO
highly lipophillic
-good for EPS tx in antipsychotics
corgard
gen name?
selectivity?
eliminated how?
nadolol
non selective
renal elim.
visken
gen name?
selectivity?

hows it similar to acebutolol
pindolol
non select BB and ISA
less tiring

like acebutolol, but ace is b1 selective
bystolic
gen name?
selectivity?
nevibolol-2.5,5,10
b1 selective-most selective BB

2 ways of lowering BP- inc NO prod and BB
lopressor
gen name?
selectivity?
metoprolol
b1 selective in low doses
some lipophilicity
can be broken in half
IR=tart, SUCC=XL-25,50,100,200MG BID or qd
tenormin
gen name?
selective?
lipo?
atenolol
b1 selective
most HYDROphilic
coreg
gen name?
selective?
fun facts
carvedilol
non selective B1 B2, and alpha1 blocker

take with food-to dec orthostatis
conv of coreg BID to CR dosing
3.125BID=10mgD

6.25BID=20mgD

12.5BID=40mgD

25BID=80mgD
digoxin
doses tabs and soln
colors for each strength
Yellow=125mcg
White=250mcg

soln- 50mcg/ml
describe digoxin trophically ha
how to tx toxicity

half life?
+ ionotrope, - chronotrope

can't dialysis, too small-use digibind and digifab

t1/2= 40h, so give LD, can skip missed doses
aldomet
gen name?
doses?
hows it work?
methyldopa
250, 500mg BID
alpha2 agonist, decreases NA-like clonidine
Beers List
for HTN in preg-also hydralazine
coumadin colors
1mg=
2mg=
2.5mg=
3mg=
4mg=
5mg=
6mg=
7.5mg=
10mg=
1=p1nk
2=lavEndEr
2.5=green
3-BROwn
4=BLUE
5=PEACH
6=teal
7.5=yellow
10=white
INR targets
what increases INR?
what decreases INR?
2 to 3

increase INR=CYP inhib=cimetidine, prozac


dec INR=CYP inducers-st johns, phenyt, griseo
Nitrostat doses

Nitrolingual pumpspray
SL tab- 0.3,0.4, 0.6mg


0.4mg/spray do NOT shake
nitroglycerins

mg/grain equiv
new guidelines
0.4mg=1/150 gr

if 1st tx doesnt work, call 911

avoid tolerance-10-12 h free period
which nitrate is comm. abused
amyl nitrite aporoles- inhalant .3ml
in fridge
isordil dinitrate

seperate dosing by how long
by 6 H
>18h nitrate free interval
isosorbide mononitrate
brand?
older product named?
what does BID mean
monket
ISMO

BID-7H apart
imdur doses


what does a HA mean with nitrates?
30,60,120 ER
most common isosorbide product


its working, give tylenol
BiDil
isosorbid dinitrate and hydralazine
20mg iso and 37.5hydralazine

adjunct for black ppl for HF
aggrenox
gen and doses
what is used to increase absorption?
antithrombotic
dipyridamole 200mg ER + Aspirin 25mg
tartaric acid is in also to increase absorption

dipyrid alone is on beers list
which KCL can be put in water, pill hard to swallow
K-Dur
Klor-Con is small to be swallowed
KCL
1mEq=

K target range
must never be given how?
1mEQ=75mg

K= about 4

K should never be given IV BOLUS!
KCL liquid
10%=

20%
10%=20mEQ/15ml

20%=40mEQ/15ml
CCB-pines
class effex, S.E
not for rhtymic probs
peripheral vasodilator
pedal edema, gingeval hyperplasia
watch grapefruit juice intxn
procardia, adalat
gen name?
doses
procardia xl doses
nifedipine
10,20
can be used for esophageal spasms, along with HTN and angina

xl-30,60,90
norvasc
gen name
doses
amlodipine
long acting 2.5,5,10mg QD
Plendil
gen name?
dose?
felodipine long acting delayed release
2.5 5 10mg ONLY QD!!!!!!!!!!!!
dynacirc
gen name?
dose/max dose
israpidine (dynamite in isreal)
@ 5 and 10pm -max of 20 explosions a day
sular
gen name?
doses
ni-SOLD-ipine
8.5, 17, 25.5, 34mg-max is 34mgD
cardene
gen name?
doses?
nicardipine
30,45,60 BID
Caduet
gens
amlodipine + atorvastatin
CAD-duet for CAD

2.5/10, 2.5/20, 2.5/40
5/10, 5/20, 5/40, 5/80
10's " " " "
lotrel
gen name?
amlodipine and benazepril
2.5-10
5-10, 5-20, 5-40
10-20, 10-40
non-DHP CCB
what class of antiarrthymic
IV
Diltiazem
forms
caps CD=24H -120, 180, 240, 300, 360, 420
caps do not = tabs

closely related to verapamil
-has less constipation
verelan or calan
gen name?
which dose can be broken in half

SE
verapamil
reg-40,80,120
SR doses-120,180,240

SE-constipation-not by anticholinergic properties-from Ca blockade in gut
covera-HS
gen name?
doses
verapamil 180,240 @ bedtime
Cmax in morning

like verelan PM 100,200,300QHS
ACE-I class properties

CHF doses?
HTN doses?
K sparing
decrease aldosterone release
no for pregnancy-death in 2nd/3rd trimester
bradykinin-cough, angioedema

CHF -lower dose
HTN-higher dose
capoten
gen name?
dose?
captopril-SHORTERST DURATION
12.5, 25, 50, 100 BID
vasotec
gen name?
dose
enalapril
2.5, 5, 10, 20

vaseretic-with HCTZ- 5/12.5 10/25
altace
gen name?
dose?
ramipril in caps-can be open and sprinkled(fags)

1.25, 2.5, 5, 10mg
monopril
gen name?
fun fact
MoFo!
fosinopril 10, 20, 40 mg
50% Fecally eliminated-renal impairment
Prinivil, zestril
gen name?
doses
lisinopril
5,10,20,40mg
prinzide, zestoretic
doses
lisinopril with HCTZ
10/12.5
20/12.5, 20/25
lotensin
gen name
doses?
benazepril
5,10,20,40
accupril
gen name?
quinapril
5,10,20,40
accuretic

doses
quin + HCTZ
10/12.5
20/12.5, 20/25
aceon
gen name?
doses?
perindopril
2,4,8

2nd most potent
mavik
gen name?
doses?
trandolapril
1,2,4

most potent
Tarka
gen name
doses?
trandolapril with verapamil
1/240
2/180, 2/240
4/240
univasc
gen name?
doses
moexipril
7.5
15mg
uniretic
doses
moex + HCTZ

7.5/12.5
15/12.5, 15/25
ARBs MOA
SE
block AT2 at AT1 receptor
less cough
still not for preg
cozaar
gen name
doses
losartan
25,50,100
hyzaar
gen
doses
losartan + HCTZ
50/12.5
100/12.5, 100/25
diovan
gen name
doses
valsartan
40,80,160,320
diovan with HCTZ dose
80/12.5
160/12.5, 160/25
exforge
gen
dose
amlodipine + valsartan- for HTN
5/160, 10/160, 5/320, 10/320
avapro
gen name
doses
irbesartan- big doses like avalanche is big
75,150,300
avalide
irbesartan + HCTZ
Atacand
doses
candesartan-small like candy bar-small doses
4,8,16,32
benicar
gen name
doses
olmesartan
5,20,40
azor
gen name
doses
amlodipine + olmesartan
5/20, 5/40
10/20, 10/40
tribenzor
gen name
olmesartan, amlodipine, HCTZ
for uncontrolled HTN-not for initial HTN
D/C if preg
Teveten
gen name?
doses?
eprosartan
400, 600mg
teveten HCT
doses
600/12.5

600/25
micardis
gen name?
doses
telmisartan
20,40,80
tekturna
gen name
doses
MOA
aliskiren

direct renin inhib

150, 300
under investigation
catapres
gen name
doses
MOA
clonidine
tabs- 0.1, 0.2, 0.3mg BID
MAX-2.4mg/DAY
moa-central A2 agonist, decreases NE + anticholinergic= its a heteroreceptor

do NOT abruptly DC=rebound HTN
catapres TTS doses
TTS 1= 0.1mg/day
2= 0.2mg/day
3= 0.3mg

use only for 7 days, then take off and rotate next patch
clonidine is similar to
tenex (guanfacine) 1 to 2 mg PO d
hytrin gen name
terazosin
good for HTN and urinary block

se-1st dose syncopy
cardura
gen name
doxazosin

se-1st dose syncopy
would alpha 1 blockers be ok for HTN in females?

how should alpha1 blockers be used for HTN
no-causes bedwetting

use in conjunction with other HTN meds-not solo
apresoline
gen name
hydralazine

arteriolar vasodilator

for HTN in preg pts in hospital
fibric acid derivatives or fibrates work how
lower TG's and LDL, by activating lipoprotein lipase
lopid
gen name
gemfibrozil

watch combo with statins=muscle breakdown

caution: fenofibrates increase serum crCl
fenofibrates: tricor doses
48 and 145mg
fenofibrates: antara doses
43 and 130mg
fenofibrates: lofibra doses
54,67,134,160, 200mg
trilipix
gen name
fenofibric acid
45 and 135mg

only fibrate approved in combo with statins
questran
gen name
MOA
cholestyramine another brand is prevalite
4g resin/packet
bile acid sequestrant
welchol
gen name
colesevelam-bile acid sequestrant
tabs or poweder

can improve glycemic control-DM2
livalo
gen name
dose
pitavastatin (Peter)-1mg
1,2,4mg
cRESTor
gen name
dose
ROSuvastatin (Rose-5mg)
5,10,20,40mg
Lipitor
gen name
dose
atorvastatin (And-10mg)
10,20,40,80
Zocor
gen name
dose
Simvastatin-(Sam 20mg)
5,10,20,40,80mg
Mevacor
gen name
dose
lovastatin- (Love 40mg)
20,40mg
Pravachol
gen name
dose
pravastatin (Pringles-40mg)
10,20,40,80mg

most water soluble-NO CYP450 INTXN's-less muscle breakdown
Lescol
gen name
dose
fluvastatin (with flavor 80mg)
XL80mg
Niaspan
lowers what
its niacin
lowers LDL and increases HDL
Simcor
gen names
simvastatin with niacin
advicor
gen name
lovastatin + niacin
altoprev
gen name
lovastatin ER
Zetia
gen name
MOA

in what other drug
ezetimibe
inhibits cholestrol absorption

in vytorin (simvastatin + zetia)
vaughan williams classification system
I=
II=
III=
IV=
I=Na+ blockers
II=BB
III=amiodarone and so to lol
IV=hy dral a zine (not other CCBs) + digoxin
cordarone
gen name
amiodarone
need LD- halflife is 50days
fatal toxic=hypersens. pneumonitis-report breathing problems
-see ophthalmologist

is CYPE450 substrate watch intxn
betapace
gen name
sotalol (2 isomers)
class III activity
non selective BB

AF- has special instruction for AF pts
tambocor
gen name
doses
flecainide
tabs 50,100,150 mg BID= q 12 H
class IC
rythmol
gen name
propafenONE reg-Q 8H!!!
SR, ER Q 12H!!
IC -blocks Na
QUINIDINE
what class
IA

use quinidine for leg cramps

caution tonic water has quinine
normal IOP range
11 to 21
but some have >21 and are ok
whats the problem in open angle glaucoma
trabecular meshwork is unable to drain fluid cuz fiber stiffness
problem in closed angle glaucoma
drainage problem cause closed angle btwn the iris and cornea
PGA drugs
work how?
SE
xalatan, lumigan, travatan
ONE DROP daily

increase outflow thru uveoscleral route

SE-darken iris and brow, growing of eyelashes
xalatan
gen name
latanoprost
prodrug
lumigan
gen name
bimatoprost
PGA
0.01%-starting/changing therapy
0.03% orignal strength

used for eyelashes-Latisse
Travatan Z
gen name
travoprost
no BAK-no benzalkonium Cl=eye iritation
BB eye drops
work how?
inexp, used for long time
lower IOP by decreasing rate of aqueous humor
timoptic
gen name
timolol maleate
preservative free-one time use

nonselective BB-not for COPD pt
Timoptic XE- gel-must be shaken
Betimol
gen name?
timolol HEMIHYDRATE .5%-diff salt then timolol maleate-no subs
optipranolol
gen name + strength
selectivity
metipranolol .3%
non selective BB
combigan
gen name and strength
brimonidine 0.2% + timolol 0.5%
combo alpha2 agonist + BB
Betoptic-S
gen name
selectivity
betazolol susp.-less stinging
B1 selective
brand 0.25% susp.

betoptic generic-only 0.5%soln
betagan
gen name
Levobunolol
longest acting BB for eye-0.25%
+ 0.5%
QD
non selective
alphagan-P
gen name? + strengths
brimonidine + preservative-alpha 2 agonist
-dec. aqueous prod. + inc outflow thru uveoscleral
0.1% + 0.15%

has generic but w/o preservative-so can't witch
whats good alt for glaucoma pts with asthma
alpha2 agonist-alphagan
neptazane
gen name?
MOA
caution in
methazolamide- carbonic anhydrase inhib- dec aqueous humor

caution-in sulf pts-are sulfonamides
Diamox
gen name

caution in
acetazolamide
500mg sequels-long lasting
like neptazane, but also for mt sickness, epilepsy

caution-in sulf pts-are sulfonamides
trusopt
gen name?
work how?
2% dorzolamide
inhib production of aqeuous humor- inhib carbonic anhydrase
cosopt
gen name?
2% dorzolamide + 0.5% timolol-dec aq humor-BID
azopt
gen name?
1% brinzolamide-TID, less stinging then trusopt

carbonic anhydrase inhib.
pilocarpine
uses
MOA
SE
green cap
open angle or closed angle

direct acting miotic (constricts pupil)=open trabecular meshwork=drainage

SE-browache, diarrhea, night blindness
pilocarpine gel strength
4%gel for HS in 4g tube
echothiophate iodide
what is it?
how to get
-cholinesterase inhib
miotic-indirect cholinergic agonist

get thru drop-shipment
have fishy odor
tobrex
gen name
preparation?
tobramycin- 0.3% in 5ml + 3.5g ointment
eye drops can be used in ear but not other way around
tobradex
gen name
tobramycin 0.3% with 0.1% dexamthasone (antiinflam)
tobraDEXST
tobramycin 0.3% with 0.05%
bleph-10
gen name
sulfacetamide ophthalmic
watch in sulfa allergies
erythromycin oint
watch out for warfarin intxn-INR jumps to 8.5
ciloxan
gen name
ciprofloxacin
FQ
Nevanac
gen
nepafenac 0.1% -its prodrug EASILY penetrates cornea
NSAID- inhibits COX
acular
gen name
-ketorlac 0.5% soln
NSAID-inhib COX

acular LS- ketorlac 0.4% for LASIK
patanol
gen name
olopatadine 0.1%-inhib histamine release from mast cells
for itching of eye

pataday-0.2%
restatis
gen name
cyclosporin
immunosuppresive agent

invert vial before use to form white color
atropine
anticholinergic- red top
1% eye drops can be placed under tongue to dry secretions
ince an eye drop is open, replace within
90 days, regardless of expiration date
what is choroid
middle layer of eye with all blood vessels-give nourishment to eye-esp retina
myopia aka
nearsightedness-cant see far
hyperopia
farsightedness=cant see close
sclera
white part of eye