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12 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
ApoA1
(defects)
Essential for HDL production

Defects in ApoA1 are associated with atherosclerosis
ApoB
(defects)
ApoB100 is key characteristic for LDL

used for structural stability & as a ligand for LDL receptor on liver

ApoB100 is associated with hypercholesterolemia
ApoC
(defects)
ApoCII a ligand used to bind to LPL receptor in tissues

Defects are associated with hypertriglyceridemia
ApoE
(defects)
ApoE used as ligand to bind to LDL receptor on the liver

Also binds to heparin sulfate proteoglycans which allow hepatic lipase to remove TG

Defects are associated with hyperlipoproteinemia
Cholesterol
Synthesized from dietary fatty acids and or is biosynthesized

Enters the intestine via NPC1L1 transporter

Esterification via ACAT2 enzyme yields a cholesterol ester in the liver & intestines
Cholesterol Esters
Packaged in the ER of liver into chylomicrons
Fatty acids
Form TG for storage
Triglycerides
Are formed when OH groups on Glycerol react with COOH in fatty acids

TG undergo lipolysis to yield fatty acids for energy

Transported by lipoproteins and are either utilized or stored in the liver, adipose tissue, or skeletal muscle
Chylomicrons
Made in the intestine, exit and enter circulation

Receive ApoC & ApoE from generous HDL

ApoC binds to LPL in tissue (adipose & skeletal muscle) and gives away TG
Chylomicron Remnants
Produced in liver from chylomicrons

Go to liver and bind to LDL or LRP receptor via ApoE

ApoE then binds to heparin sulfate proteoglycan to get rid of more TG via hepatic lipase
VLDL
Produced in the liver from chylomicron

Leaves the liver and gains ApoC and ApoE from generous HDL

In the tissues ApoCII binds to LPL where TG are given up
IDL
Formed in the tissues from VLDL

Has 2 options:
either circulate
or go back to liver

What decides its fate is the number of LDL receptors on liver or number of LPL proteins in tissue