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8 Cards in this Set

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On-the-job protests
workers try to hang onto rights, not just become machinery

sought to control the pace of production: too fast and working conditions were inhumane, they overproduced and prices went down

they wanted: decent pace of work and paycheck

workers quit alot
Strike activity after 1876
1877 railroads

the enormous numbers of strikers indicates that there were middle class as well as lower class

UNIONS have much bigger rol
NLU
established 1866 with many motivations, including temerpance, womens sufferage and others
The Knights of Labor
established originally as secret society in 1869, becomes public in 1879 with Terence V Powderly. sought to "secure to the workers the full enjoyment of the wealth they create." '

frowned on using strike as weapon, but repeaped the benefits

became very political,
sponsored many candidates

pressed for creation of department of labor

eventually union fell apart
AFL
American Federation of Labor
replaces KNights of labor

federation of skilled trades: cigars iron, carpenters

each one autonomous

belived in power to strike

did not accept blacks and unskilled
Setbacks
Idaho Ceure d'... strike, miners get replaced by drills, strike, and get replaced by scabs and assulted by state millitia

HOMESTEAD steal mills 1892
Henry Clay Frick put in cahrge of Homstead Steal mill by Carnegia, wanted to elinminate a union. buit wall, spotlught, and hired agents to protect factory

there is riot, state troups come to put down riot and union

anarchist attemps to assisnate frick

EUGENE VICTOR DEBS
organizer of railroad workers
Created ARU, won strikes

PULLMAN workers- lives dominated by company. joined in 1894 and began to strike
Debs avoids violence, but it happens anyway when feds get involed
Debs is convicted of contempt of court, sumpreme court agrees in 1895,
Americans slow to join unions
less homogenous than europeans
ethnic diversity creates problems
particularly chinese got fucked by other workers
A conclusion
workers got very little of the gains of industrialization

people who did well: jews, germans
people who did alright: italians, irish, polish
people who did terribly: blacks, hispanics