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74 Cards in this Set

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Cilia
Tiny hairlike projections from the walls of the airways, move rhythmically to sweep trapped debris up and out of the airway
Upper Airway
located above the larynx
Includes: nasal passages, mouth, and pharynx
Lower airway
Located below the larynx
Includes: trachea, bronchi, and brochioles
Considered sterile
Nasal passages
contain coarse hairs that filter air and vascular membranes that warm and moisten the air
When nasal passages are blocked or we need increased airflow, we tend to do what?
Mouth breathing
Pharynx
Throat
Tonsils on each side (lymphoid tissue)
Contains openings to the esophagus and trachea
Location of the trachea
lies just in front of the esophagus
Epiglottis
A small flap of tissue superior to the larynx that closes of the trachea during swallowing so the food and fluid do not enter the airway
Larynx
narrowest portion of the upper airway,
Common site for airway obstruction
Laryngospasm
spasm of the larynx muscles
What are the 2 parts and purposes of the trachea?
left mainstem bronchus - narrower, longer and leaves the trachea at a sharper angle than the right, horizontal angle
right mainstem bronchus, shorter and fatter and leaves trachea at a more vertical angle
bronchospasm
spasm of the smooth muscles in brochi and bronchioles causing a narrowing of airway and obstructs airflow
Lungs
soft spongy cone shaped organs that lie on each side of the chest cavity
mediastinum
seperate the lungs
includes the heart and great vessels
Which lung has 3 lobes?
Right lung
Apex
Extends upwards towards the clavicle
Base
bottom, rests of diaphragm
Alveoli
Tiny air sacs with thin walls surrounded by a fine network of capillaries
Alveolar-capillary membrane
gas exchange between the alveolar and the capillaries
Type I alveolar cells
gas exchange cells
type II alveolar cells
not involved in gas exchange
produce surfactant
Surfactant
a lipoprotein that lowers the surface tension within alveoli and prevents their walls from adhering together
Pleura
a thin double layered membrane
one layer lines inside the chest cavity, the other covers the outside of the lungs
pleural space
a thin film of fluid that allows the two layers to remain in contact but glide over each other during breathing movements
What portion of the upper airway is most prone to airway obstruction? Why?
the larynx because it is the narrowest portion of the upper airway
Ventilation
Movement of air into and out of the lungs through the act of breathing
Respiration
Exchange of gases
Carbon dioxide and oxygen in the lungs
Oxygenation
refers to how well the cells, tissues, and organs are supplied with oxygen
Hypoxemia
occurs when the blood is not adequately oxygenated
low blood-oxygen levels
perfusion
the circulation of blood to all body regions
Hypoxia
inadequate oxygen levels in the tissues and organs
pulmonary ventilation
the movement of air into and out of the lungs
Inhalation
expansion of chest cavity and lungs
creates negative pressure inside, causes air to be drawn through the nose or mouth and airways
Diaphragm
the major muscle of breathing
Exhalation
diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax
Chest and lungs return to normal resting size
Hyperventillation
rate and depth of breathing increase enough to move a large amount of air through the lungs
Causes carbon dioxide to drop
Hypoventillation
decreased rate or depth of breathing moves only a small amount of air into and out of the lungs
Lung compliance
the ease of lung inflation
have stretchy elastin fibers, low water content and low alveolar surface tension
Elastic recoil
the tendency of the elastin fibers to return to their original positions
Lung compliance
the ease of lung inflation
Lungs inflate easily because of their stretchy elastin fibers, low water content, and low alveolar surface tension
Conditions that reduce lung compliance:elastin replaced with scar tissue(collagen), increased lung water (edema), or loss of surfactant
elastic recoil
tendency of the elastin fibers to return to their position away from the chest wall after being stretched
Alveoli that have been overstretched as with emphysema, lose their elastic recoil over time. loss of elasticity allows the lungs to inflate easily but inhibits deflation, leaving stale air trapped in the alveoli
airway resistance
the resistance to airflow within the airways. the larger the diameter of the airways, the more easily the air moves through it.
respiration
refers to gas exchange, the oxygenation of blood and elimination of carbon dioxide in the lungs
what 2 levels does gas exchange occur?
1. at the alveolar capillary membrane in the lungs (external)
2. at the capillary cellular membrane in body tissues (internal)
External respiration
occurs in the lungs at the alveolar capillary membrane.
diffusion
tendency of melecules of a substance to move from a region of HIGH concentration to one of LOWER concentration
Oxygen and CO2 diffuse more rapidly through which type of membrane?
Thin
Thicker membranes slow the rate of gas diffusion
What factors reduce the total surface area available for gas exchange?
Loss of lung function due to secretions, lung colapse, or bronchospasm
which gas is 20x more soluble in water?
Carbon dioxide;
baroreceptors
located in the walls of the heart and blood vessels are sensitive to pressure changes
when even a small drop in pressure is sensed, they send messages to the brain stem centers to stimulate the sympathetic nervous system to increase heart rate and induce vasoconstriction
cardioinhibitory center
controls parasympathetic slowing of the heart rate
chemoreceptors
located in the aortic arch and the carotid arteries are sensitive to changes in blood pH, osygen levels, and carbon dioxide levels.
Main function is to regulate ventilation, but they also send information to the vasomotor center in response to lack of oxygen.
atelectasis
collapse of alveoli
common in premature infants
causes RDS - respiratory distress syndrome
Risk for toddlers
URI - upper respiratory infections risk remains high because tonsils and adenoids are relatively large, and many children are exposed to new infectious agents in preschool and daycare
reduced lung expansion and less alveolar inflation
due to costal carilage begins to calcify, reducing chest wall movement during breathing; 2. the lungs have less recoil ability
3. the alveoli lose elasticity
difficulty expelling mucus or foreign material causes
due to a less effective cough reflex and fewer cilia in the airways
diminished ability to increase ventilation
due to oxygenation demands increase (exercise) exhalation becomes less efficient, causing progressive air trapping
declining immune response
cell-mediated immunity, t-cell activity, and inflammatory response
Stress response stimulates:
release of catecholamines from the sympathetic nervous system resulting in inc hr and contractility, vasoconstriction, and inc tendency of blood clot
2. suppression of the immune and inflammatory responses, which decr resistance to the infection
3. relaese of cortisol from adrenal cortex, which results in altered glucose, fat and protein metabolism
Allergy
a hypersensitivity or over response to an antigen
pulmonary allergies
dust , dust mites, cockroach particles, pollen, molds, newsprint, tobacco smoke, animal dander, and sometimes foods
Inflammatory subtances such as histamine and protease released during an allergic response cause the following cardiovascular events:
Qdilation of blood vessels in areas affected (increase blood flow)
attraction of eosinophils and neutrophils to the reaction site
damage of local tissues by protease
increased permeability of capillaries, with resulting fluid leak into tissues
contraction of local smooth muscle cells
hay fever
an allergic reaction affecting the eyes nose and or sinuses and causing the release of histamine which is largely responsible for accumulation of nasal fluid and swollen nasal membranes
Asthma
an allergic reaction occurring in the bronchiloes of the lungs causing release of slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis which causes lower airway edema and spasms, making breathing difficult and ineffective
what is the range for atmospheric pressure?
760 mm Hg at sea level to 523 mm Hg at 10,000 feet
high altitudes can cause oxygen levels to...
decrease resulting in hypoxia and hypoxemia
changes in altitude can cause:
increase in: ventilation, production of RBC, lung volume and pulmonary vasculature (resulting in increased surface area for alveolar-capillary gas exchange), vascularity of body tissues, ability of tissue cells to use oxygen pressure is low
what does heat do to oxygenation?
heat causes vasodilatation which increases cardiac output and oxygenation. heat also increases metabolism which causes people to be more naturally sedentary during hot weather
what does cold to to oxygenation?
slows cell metabolism (reducing O2 demand), vasoconstriction and slows heart rate.
artificial hypothermia is used in surgery quite successfully
pregnancy factors
oxygen demands increase dramatically, blood volume increases by 30%, requires additional iron to produce this blood
maternal anemia can occur
resp increase in order to increase minute ventilation
occupational hazards
irritate airways, cause cardiovascular disease, interfering with blood cell function, or causing cancer
toxic agents are catergorized as:
chemicals and their fumes - irritate membranous lining of the lungs and airways and may lead to lung cancer or leukemia
products of combustion - known causes of lung cancer and chronic lung disease
organisms - fungi and mold
fine particles - coal dust, and asbestos cause irritation and toxic reactions, in cluding cancer
radiation is a known cause of cancer
poor nutrition can lead to:
loss of ventilatory muscle strength, making breathing more difficult
Obesity
BMI above 30
respiratory infections: fat stores press upward on diaphragm preventing full chest expansion, leading to hypoventilation and dyspnea on exertion
sleep apnea: chest expansion is limited even more when a person lies down
cardiovascular effects: increased risk of srtherosclerosis and hypertension