Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
normal functioning: resp systme
-the integrity of the airway system to transport air to adn from the lungs
-a properly functioning alveolar system in the lungs to oxygenate venous blood and to remove carbon dioxide
-properly functioning cardiovascular adn hematologic system to carry nutrients adn wastes to and from body cells.
upper airway
nose, pharynx, larynx, and epiglottis.
function: warm, filter, adn humidify inspired air.
lower airway
tracheobronchial tree includes teh trachea, r adn l mainstem bronchi, segmental bronchi, and terminal bronchioles.
function: conduction of air, mucociliary clearance, and production of pulmonary surfactant
traps cells, particles, and infectious debris. also protects the underlying tissues from irritationa dn infection.
microscopic hairlike projections, propel mucus toward the upper airway
mian organs of respiration are located within the thoracic cavity. each is divided into loves, righ lung has 3, left 2.
small air sacs that are lined with fluid at the end of the terminal bronchioles. they are the structures for gas exchange.
dtergent-like phospholipid, reduces the surface tension of the fluid lining the alveoli
two layered membranes: the visceral pleura covers the lungs, and the parietal pleura lines the thoracic cavity.
-pleural fluid btwn the membranes acts as a lub and as an adjesive agent to hold the lungs in a n expanded position.
large, dome-shaped muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity
-responsible for normal inspiration and expiration
conditions that affect ventilation
Lung compliance:
-lack of surfactant
-lung diseases
-foreign substances
-tumor, edema
process in which oxygenated capillary blood passes through tissues
causes of acute hypoxia
chronic hypoxia
cystic fibrosis, congenital cyanotic heart disease
Acute hypoxia S&S
dyspnea, increased BP, pulse, respiratory rate, pallow, cyanosis, anxiety, restlessness
chronic hypoxia S&S
altered thought processes, headaches, chest pain, enlarged heart, clubbing, anorexia, constipation, decreased urinary output, decreased libido, muscle weakness and pain.
gas exchange, occurs at the terminal alveolar capillary system.
gas exchange. diffusion refers to the movement of o2 and co2 between the air in the alveoli and blood in the capillaries.
control of respiration
medulla int eh brain stem is the respiratory center. stimulated by an increased concentration of carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions, adn to a lesser degree, by teh decreased amount of o2 int eh arterial blood.
diseases that affect respiration
-anemia results in diminished carbon dioxide exchange.
-renal or cardiac disorders often have compromised resp functioning b/c of fluid overload.
-chronic illness with muscle wasting and poor muscle tone.
30-60 breaths/min
abdominal breathing, irregular in rate and depth
chest wall: thin, little muscle, rigbs and sternum easily seen
breath sounds: loud, harsh crackes at end of deep inspiration
early childhood
20-40 breath/min
abdominal breathing, irregular
same chest wall as infants, but more subcutaneous fat
Loud harsh expiration longer than inspiration
elliptical thorax
late childhood (6-12)
15-25 breaths/min
thoracic breathing, regular
further subcutaneous fat deposited
clear inspiration is longer than expiration
aged adult
16-20 breaths/min
thoracic, regular resp pattern
thin, structures prominent chest wall
clear breath sounds
acute bronchitis: S&S snd trt
inflammation of the bronchi usually appear after a resp infection:
-fever, cough, sore throat, wheezing, and the production of thick yellow mucus
-trt with antibiotics, medications to alleviate the symptoms
chronic bronchitis: causes and S&S
most frequently caused by long term irritation of the bronchial tubes:
S&S continue for 3mos: wheezing, fatigue, chronic productive cough, SOB, chest pain
-causes: smoking,allergy, airborne pollutants
chronic bronchitis: treatment
-limit exposure to pollutants
-yearly flu and pneumonia vaccine
-resp training program: physical activity adn breathing exercises
-inhaler: bronchodilators--albuterol or steriods
-oral bronchodilator and oral steriods
-antibiotics to trt or prevent infection
-o2 therapy
difficulty breathing, breathlessness, SOB.
-sensation of difficult or uncomfortable breathing or a feeling of not getting enough air
the collaps of alveoli or lungs
S&S: dyspnea, chest pain, cough
Diagnosis: chest x-ray, bronchoscopy.
Risks: anesthesia, prolonged bed rest, shallow breathing, thick secretions, foreign objects, and underlying lung diseases (tumor)
atelectasis: treatment
-positioning on the unaffected side to allow re-expansion of the lung
-postural drainage: using gravity to drain secretions
-removal of the obstruction
-deep breathing exercises IS
-trt of tumor or condition
emphysema: S&S
damage to the alveoli; permanently enlarged air sacs of the lung with reduced lung elasticity:
S&S: SOB, chronic cough w/ or w/o sputum, wheezing, anxiety, unintentional wt loss, ankle, feet, and leg swelling, fatigue
emphysema; trtment and prevention
medications to improve breathing: bronchodilators, diuretics, corticosteroids, antibiotcs, o2 therapy
a group of chronic lung disorders leading to the blocked air flow int eh lungs with variable degrees of air sac enlargement and lung tissue destruction:
-most common causes of resp failure
-permanent and irreversible.
COPD: causes S&S
-alpha 1 anti-trypsin enzyme deficiency---nonsmokers
-passive smoking
S&S: dyspnea SOB, wheezing, decreased exercise tolerance, cough with w/o sputum.
COPD: diagnosis, trt
diagnosis: clinical eval (nasal flaring and pursed lip breathing), chest x-ray, CT scan, pulmonary function studies.
trt: stop smoking, inhalers, theophylin, oral steroids, antibiotics, low-flow oxygen, non-invasive ventilation, or intubation.
-lung volume reduction surgery, lung transplant
Pneumonia: causes and S&S
inflammation of the lungs caused by an infection
cause: bacteria, viruses, and fungi
S&S: cough, bloody sputum, fever, chest pain, rapid shallow breathing, SOB, headache, excessive sweating, loss of appetite, fatigue, confusion in older people.
Pneumonia: trt and prevention
trtment: antibiotics, fluid hydration, rest, steroids, control fever, humidifier
prevention: wash hands, don't smoke, wear a mask when cleaning out dusty or moldy areas. vaccines.
inflammation of the airways causes airflow into and out of the lungs to be restricted.
asthma: S&S
chest pain
tightness of the chest
pumonary function studies
-evaluate pulmonary status and detect abnormalities
-spirometer: lung capacity, volumes, flow rates
Peak Expiratory Flow Rate PEFR
-evaluate the volume of air that can be forcibly exhaled.
-decreased: airway obstruction.
pleural fluid aspiration:
entering the pleural cavity and aspirating fluid
normally the cavity contains less than 20mml of serous fluid
Pco2 levels
related medical conditions
foreign body/tumor
restrictive pulmonary disease
CNS disorders
major abdominal surgery
to open constricted airways
mucolytic agents
to liquefy or loosen thick secretions
reduce inflammation in the airways
arterial blood gas and pH analysis
examines arterial blood to determine the pressure exerted by o2 and co2 in teh blood and the blood pH.
-measures the adequacy of oxygenation, ventilation, and perfusion
cytologic study
microscopic exam of sputum and cells it contains.
-examine cells that are malignant, determine organisms causing infections, identify blood or pus in the sputum
endoscopic studies (bronchoscopy)
involve direct visualization of a body cavity. Bronchoscopy is used to view lesions, obtain a biopsy, improve drainage, remove foreign substances, and drain abscesses.
skin tests
determine antigen-antibody reactions. TB tests
x-ray examination of the lungs and the thoracic cavity. to help diagnose pulmonary diseases and to determine the progress or development of disease.
lung scan
recording on a photographic plate of the emissions of radioactive waves from a substance injected into a vein as it circulates through the lungs.
perfusion scan (Q scan)
measure integrity of pulmonary blood vessels and evaluate blood flow abnormalities
ventilation scan (V scan)
done to detect ventilation abnormalities (emphysema)
pulse oximetry
looking at 02 in the artery
ineffective airway
impaired gas exchange
ineffective breathing pattern
activity intolerance as r/t ineffective airway