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116 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What two systems supply O2 needs?
cardiac and respiratory
What carries 97% of O2
A disorder which is caused by a decreased O2 carrying capacity?
When would you find a decreased inspired O2 concentration?
airway obstruction, higher attitudes
What is a decrease in circulatory blood volume from blood loss?
What can shock and dehydration cause?
What happens with an increase in O2 demand that results in an elevated temp?
increased metabolic rate
What is hyperventilation induced by?
anxiety, infections, drugs, acid base imbalance
What is atelectasis
collapse of alveoli
Abnormal structural configurations that can affect O2?
Trauma situations that can cause O2 problems?
rib fx, chest/abd incisions
Name a muscle disease that can affect O2.
Name some nervous systems diseases that can affect O2
myocenia gravis, gedeon beret
What in pain management can affect O2?
Name a developmental factor that can affect O2?
premature infants - down surfactant level
What happens when blood backs up in pulmonary circ?
congestion and decreased Cardiac Output
What is left sided heart failure usually caused by?
chronically elevated arterial pressures and pulmonary congestion
Part of heart affected by left sided heart failure?
left ventricle
Part of heart affected by right sided heart failure
right ventricle
In right sided heart failure what happens to the jugular vein?
gets distended, and has peripheral edema
What does right sided heart failure commonly result from?
pulmonary diseases or caused by left sided heart failure
Name some S/S of hyperventilation?
tachycardia, dizziness, blurred vision, disorientation, SOB
S/S of hypoventilation
dizziness, headache, lethargy, disorientation, coma, cardiac arrest, convulsions
Causes of Hypoxia
decreased HgB, decreased conc. inspired O2, poor tissue perfusion, decreased diffusion 02, impair. vent.
S/S hypoxia
restlessness, anxiety, fatigue, dizziness, up BP, SOB, up pulse, rate and depth, Down LOC
visible sinking in of soft tissues of chest
asynchronous, contractions during inspirations and expansion during expiration
People who are pardoxical require this type of resp. intervention?
Person whos A-P diameter is greater than transverse diameter?
barrel chest
What down an EKG assess?
determines adequacy of cardiac conduction system
arterial blood gas
Complete blood count
Chest X-Ray
What does humidification do?
keeps airway moist and helps to mobilize secretions
What does nebulization do?
dilates bronchials
3 types of breathing exercises
deep breathing and coughing exercises, pursed lip breathing, diaphragmatic breathing
normal sequence on an ECG
normal sinus rhythm
amount of oxygen entering the lungs
blood flow to lungs and tissues
oxygen carrying capacity of the blood
amount of carbon dioxide excreted by lungs
what causes hypovolemia?
extracellular fluid losses
what reduced tissues need for O2?
increased carbon dioxide
decreased arterial oxygen level in the blood
a person presents with clubbed fingers, SOB, and increased fatigue, what would you suspect?
deviation from normal sinus rhythm
coronary artery not supplying sufficient blood to myocardium
myocardial ischemia
What happens when cardiac tissue becomes completely blocked and becomes necrotic?
myocardial infarction
Myocardial Infarction
heart attack
S/S of MI
severe chest pain, SOB, diaphoresis, Down BP
Acquired or congenital valve disorder char. by stenosis and obstructed blood flow or valvular degen and regurg?
valvular heart disease
What is hyperventilation?
increase in resp. rate resulting in excess amts of CO2 elimination
What is hypoventilation?
ventilation is inadequate to meet body's O2 deamand or to eliminat CO2
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
What does surfactant do?
prevents alveolar collapse
subj sensation reported as a loss of endurance
When is cardiac pain generally manifested in males?
substernal radiating to left arm and jaw
Where is cardiac pain generally manifested in females
epigastric pain, indigestion, choking feeling, SOB
person must use multiple pillows when lying down to be able to breath
high pitched musical sound
What is wheezing caused by?
high-velocity movement of air through narrowed airwayq
sudden audible expulsion of air from lungs
What is a protective reflex to clear the trachea, bronchi, and lungs of irritants and sercretions
productive cough
sputum production coming out in a cough
bloody sputum
normal breathing rate
What is a normal breathing rate?
What are the numbers for tachypnea
rate >35
periods of no respiration lasting >15
What does of rate does apneustic breathing have?
What disease is associated with Kussmauls breathing?
diabetic ketoacidosis
Cheyne Stokes
increasing and decreasing pattern
What causes Cheyne Stokes?
alterationgs in acid-base status, underlying metabolic prob
periods of apnea and shallow breathing
What can cause Biots
CNS disorder
When is an airway patent?
when trachea, bronchi and large airways are free from obstructions
How is cough evectiveness evaluated by?
sputum expectoration, report of swallowed sputm, and clear lung sounds
Cascade Cough
slow deep breath and hold for 2 sec, cough during exhalation
Huff Cough
when exhaling ct opens glottis and says huff
What does the huff cough do?
stim. nat. cough reflex only clears central airways
Quad Cough?
while breathing out ct or nurse pushes in and up and abd mus. to cause cough
When do you use the Quad cough tech?
when you have a ct w/o abd muscle control
What does the cascade cough do?
promotes airway clearance and patent airway
What are the primary suctioning tech?
oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal, orotracheal and nasotracheal, tracheal through artificial
When do you use orophar. and nasophar suctioning?
to assist ct who can cough effectively but cannot clear secretions
When do you use orotrach and nasotrach suctioning?
when ct cant cough and does not have artifical airway
when is an artificial airway indicated?
ct with down LOC, airway obstruction, mech. vent
Where is tracheal suctioning performed through?
artifical airway
Two methods of tracheal suctioning
open and closed
Open suctioning
freshly opened sterile suction catheter each time
Closed suctioning
multiple use catheter can be used for 24 to 48 hours
What is the simplest type of artificial airway
oral airway
What does an oral airway prevent?
obstruction of trachea by displacement of tongue into oropharynx
types of tracheal airways
endotracheal, nasotracheal, tracheal tubes
What must you do with a tracheal airway
ensure humidification
How much fluid must you intake a day to keep secretions thin
1500-2000ml day
Most effective position for people with cardia pulmonary prob
semi fowlers
Incentive spiromenty
method that encourages voluntary deep breathing by providing visual feedback
hest physiotherapy
What is CPT used for?
mobilize pulmonary secretions
Chest percussion
striking the chest wall over the area being drained
fine, shaking pressure applied to chest all only during exhalation
What does vibration do?
increase velocity and turvulence of exhaled air facilitating secretion removal
Postural Drainage
use of positioning tech that drain secretions from specific segments of the lungs and bronchi into the trachea
chest tube
catheter inserted through thorax to remove air and fluid from pleural space
What is the goal of a chest tube?
restore normal intrapleural and intrapulominc pressures
collection of air or other gas in pleural space
accumulation of blood and fluid in pleural cavity between the parietal and visceral pleurae
cardiopulmonary resusciation
airway, breathing, circulation
cardiopulmonary rehabilitation
actively assisting ct to achieve and maintain an optimal level of health through controlled phys exercise, nutrition counse, relaxation and stree manage
pursed lip breathing
deep inspiration and prolonged expiration through pursed lips
What is the purpose of pursed lip breathing
preven alveolar collapse
diaphragmatic breathing
use diaphram to breath